Flyash Prefabrications: Technology and Market

Flyash Prefabrications: Technology and Market

 

Scope

The scope of the TMS is to study the:-

  • Relationship and the importance of the specific topic to the broad area to which it belongs.
  • The current status of the technology in the world and in the country. Market (domestic and export) sizes and their potentials.
  • Assessment of the technology, resource parameters such as energy, raw material infrastructure and manpower etc to arrive at preferred technology options available to the country.
  • Short term & long term economic aspects of preferred options alongwith their feasibilities.
  • Impact of the preferred option(s) by itself and its spin offs.
  • Recommendations
  • For implementation of preferred technology options(s) identify critical inputs such as raw material, capital goods and human resources required and their availability, investments required to commercialize, and benefits / return expected. Maximum possible quantification is required.
  • For R&D / technology development the requirement of inputs and expected benefits.
  • Action plan for implementation of recommendations along with identification of
  • List of available technologies for Indian industry and
  • The agencies / groups/ individuals for implementation
  • Expected impact of recommendations, if implemented.

Objectives

  • Identification of technology areas for further development in the field of utilization of flyash for the manufacture of prefabricated products.
  • Identification of optimum technologies for the country in the field of utilization of flyash for the manufacture of prefabricated products.
  • Development of implementation action plan including identification of agencies, groups and individuals for the manufacture of prefabricated products utilizing flyash.
  • Development of technology assessment capabilities in the country.

Considerations

  • Thermal Power is the main source of power generation in our country. In Indian thermal power generation contributes about 72% (Source : Urja. Vol.32, No.3 September 1992) of the overall power generation in the country and is the main source of power and is mainly based on coal firing. With the increase in coal based thermal power capacity in the country, there is likely to be a substantial increase in the quantity of fly ash generation.
  • Fly ash is a waste by-product which is generated by the thermal power stations. Flyash is a major environmental pollution hazard. It is not only creates air and water pollution but also occupies vast tracts of land for dumping.
  • In India, the installed capacity of thermal power generation of the order of 45,000 MW as on 1990. The fly ash generated was of the order of 38 million tonnes per annum and this quantity is expected to double by the end of the eighth plan period (Source : Urja. Vol.32. No.3 September 1992).
  • Housing shortage is of feature both in urban and rural areas and new building materials which are both economical and durable need to be exploited.
  • In India, the conventional building material used in construction is red burnt clay bricks and it utilizes the top fertile soil for its manufacture. Flyash can be used for the manufacture of clay flyash burnt bricks and flyash sand-lime bricks.
  • Research and Development have been carried out in India and abroad to use fly ash for the manufacture of value added building materials like bricks, blocks and prefabricated building blocks.

 

Techno Market Survey - Methodology

Desk Research

An initial desk research was done through published literature, contacting various Govt. Departments (BMTPC, HUDCO, NRDC etc.). National research Laboratories (CBRI, CFRI, CPRI etc.) to gather information on technologies utilizing fly ash for manufacture of value added products. Information was also collected from NTPC and other State Electricity Boards with regards to the quantum of fly ash generated and the problem faced by them regarding disposal.

Field Survey

A detailed field survey was undertaken by meeting officials and Research Scientists. Discussions were held with officials in HUDCO. BMTPC to obtain data on housing and building material industry in the country. Discussions were held with the Head. Ash Utilization Division of NTPC, to obtain data on total power generation, flyash quantity, problem of disposal and to find out new areas for the utilization of flyash specially prefabricated products. Meetings were also undertaken with the Scientists of research laboratories and agencies involved in technology development to understand current status of fly ash based know-how and technologies.

Report Preparation

The information / data obtained through desk research, field contacts etc. were analyzed and collated. The thrust area of the study was on utilizing fly ash for manufacture of prefabricated Blocks and Panels and other prefabricated products. The report provides a detailed information on:

  • Raw Materials
  • Specifications for the product
  • Process of manufacture
  • Status of technology
  • Infrastructural requirement
  • Manpower Planning
  • Order of investments
  • Approximate selling price etc.
  • Recommendations and action plan

Importance of the Techno-Market Survey

The importance of this techno-market survey on flyash prefabrication is directly related to a number of factors which are important to our country and the rest of the world as a whole.

Flyash is a waste by product of the thermal power stations and is a major cause of air, water and surface pollution. Proper utilization of flyash as a building material would help in eliminating the above pollution hazards.

In developing countries housing shortage is a major problem faced by the people, by utilizing flyash as a cheap substitute for sand and cement the cost of construction can be brought down appreciably.

Prefabricated building elements save a lot on construction time as well as labour costs and hence adoption of this technique can substantially bring down the construction costs.

 

Techno-Market Survey Findings

India

  • In India a number of Research & Development initiatives were undertaken both by National Research Laboratories and individuals to find ways and means for utilizing fly ash in the manufacture of building materials such as fly ash bricks, tiles, blocks etc. but not much research is being done on prefabricated products.
  • Only at Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee and Neyveli Lignite Corporation research being carried out for utilizing fly ash for the manufacture of prefabricate Blocks and Panels. There is no commercial plant manufacturing these products based on indigenous know-how at present. Hindustan Prefab Factory had adopted CBRI’s Technology for the manufacture of prefabricated blocks utilizing flyash but the plant has shut down its operations due to lack of market.
  • At present only two Private Companies namely, Ballarpur Industries Limited (BILT) and Siporex India limited (SIL) have been manufacturing prefabricated products. BILT has imported the technology from Germany for the manufacture of prefabricated Blocks and Panels. The plant has been set up at palval near Delhi and was commissioned recently during March 1993. The plant utilizes the flyash from Badarpur Thermal power Station near Delhi. SIL has collaborated with Siporex B of Sweden for the manufacture of prefabricated products but it utilizes sand for its manufacture.
  • Two Government organizations namely, Hindustan Prefab Factory at Delhi and Cellular Concrete Plant at Madras had been manufacturing prefabricated products utilizing sand/flyash but both these plants have now shut down their operations due to lack of market potential for the product and the non-availability of dry flyash.
  • At present, there is no indigenous technology for setting up of a commercial plant for the manufacture of prefabricated products and also no development of the equipment required for the plant has taken place.

Abroad

  • The technology to manufacture Aerated Light Weight concrete Blocks was developed way back in late 1920s. The technology is presently used widely in Europe and other developed countries.
  • The process is suitable for manufacture of prefabricated building panels. These are the essential requirements for mechanized construction of buildings adopted by Western countries. The main factors influencing in the adoption of technology are economic and market factors.
  • In India mechanized construction of buildings has not taken place in a major way as yet, due to cheap availability of labour and high costs of mechanized construction machineries.
  • There are number of reputed companies from Germany. Poland, England, USA etc. offering know-how and equipments for manufacture of prefabricated blocks and panels using fly ash as main raw material.

 

Preferred Options for India

The preferred options in India for the effective utilization of fly ash for manufacture of prefabricated blocks and panels include:

  • Impact of know-how from a reputed foreign company.
  • Import of design drawing for the critical equipment.
  • Involvement of Scientists from National Laboratories like CBRI, CFRI, CRRI for basic engineering know-how, documentation and optimization of raw material and working parameters.

Techno-Economics

The proposed capacity of the plant is approximately 600 Cu.m. per day or 1,80,000 Cu.m. per annum of 300 days.

  • Raw Material (Fly Ash) Requirement per year: 1,21,000 T
  • Land : 6 Acres
  • Built-up area (Factory) : 4,000 Sq.M.
  • Open area (For Storage) : 10,000 Sq.M.


    Utilities
  • Power-connected load : 1250 KW
  • Water : 300m3 /day
  • Fuel (Coal) : 9000 kg /day
  • Employment Potential : 120 Persons (approx.)
  • Investment : Rs.397.20 Million
  • Sale value per annum : Rs.388.80 Million
  • Expected profit : Rs.51.89 Million

 

Suggested Action Plan

  • In order to promote prefabricated products in building construction, greater awareness would have to be created regarding mechanized construction. This would reduce period of construction and ensure overall economy.
  • Fly ash is a siliceous material and should be encouraged for use in the manufacture of various building elements in the country.

The various areas where the prefab products can be effectively utilized are given below:

Roof and Floor slabs Partition wall panels Window sills Lamp posts and fences Bus shelter frames Cellular concrete blocks Pipes Man hole covers Shelf slabs

Suggested Action Plan

  • In order to promote prefabricated products in building construction, greater awareness would have to be created regarding mechanized construction. This would reduce period of construction and ensure overall economy.
  • Fly ash is a siliceous material and should be encouraged for use in the manufacture of various building elements in the country.

The various areas where the prefab products can be effectively utilized are given below:

Roof and Floor slabs Partition wall panels Window sills Lamp posts and fences Bus shelter frames Cellular concrete blocks Pipes Man hole covers Shelf slabs>

 

Roof and Floor slabs
Partition wall panels
Window sills
Lamp posts and fences
Bus shelter frames
Cellular concrete blocks
Pipes
Man hole covers
Shelf slabs

 

  • In Govt. building and other construction activity priority should be given to use fly ash based materials
  • Setting up of demonstration / pilot plant to manufacture fly ash based blocks and panels by the Government
  • The cost of plant and equipment is one of the major hindrances in large scale adoption of this technology. Encouraging machinery manufacturer by providing scale down design drawings to go in for modular designs. This may encourage setting up of number of plants at the source of raw material.
  • The government should create public awareness about the pollution hazards of flyash & should then show the various areas where flyash could be utilized effectively.
  • It is recommended that more of government and private agencies should come up with the work of developing indigenous technologies for the use of fly ash in the manufacture of prefabricated products.
  • The government and public sector enterprises engaged in the construction activities should not only be encouraged to use fly ash based prefabricated products but should also be instructed to utilize fly ash based prefabs wherever there is scope for its utilization.
  • It is recommended that there should be more research on increasing the day one strength of flyash based prefabricated products.
  • There is need to develop indigenous technology for the critical equipment used in the plant like the cement screw conveyor. The vertical and horizontal cutting machines.
  • It is recommended that the government should set up their own electrostatic precipitators for the dry handling of flyash as only flyash in this form is utilizable for the manufacture of prefabricated products. This would promote entrepreneurs to set up their own flyash based manufacturing unit.