Code No: TMS108 Price:Rs1600/- Category: Foods & Agriculture: Sugar Industry By Products
Man’s endeavour to advance have placed more strain on the environment in the last fifty years than in the previous 500 years put together. Man has been the greatest single factor in the ecological imbalance of modern times. Industry, in general the distillery industry in particular has been a major source of pollution. The effluents of this industry not only causes pollution, but if reused can enhance profitability as well.
This techno-market survey report consists of detailed study of the pollution problems of the distillery and brewery effluents and technologies available in India and abroad for the recovery of useful materials by treating these effluents gainfully.
I. Objective and Scope of the Study
The main objectives of this techno-market survey report on “Recovery from Industrial Waste” (distilleries) are as follows:
1. Identification of technology areas for further development.
2. Identification of optimum technologies for the country in selected areas.
3. Development of implementation action plan including identification of agencies.
4. Development of technology assessment capabilities in the country.
The scope and coverage of the techno-market survey would be to study and analyze:-
1. Relationship and the importance of the specific topic to the broad area to which it belongs.
2. The current status of the technology in the world and in the country. Market (domestic and export) sizes and their potentials.
3. Assessment of the technology, resources parameters such as energy, raw material, infrastructure and manpower etc. to arrive at preferred technology options available to the country.
4. Short term and economic aspects preferred options along with their feasibilities.
5. Impact of the preferred options by itself and its linkages to the broad area of technologies and spin offs.
i) For implementations of preferred technology option(s) identify critical inputs such as raw material, capital goods and human resources required and their availability, investments required to commercialize, and benefits/returns expected. Maximum possible quantification is required.
ii) For R&D / Technology development identify the requirement of inputs and expected benefits.
7. Action Plan for implementation of recommendations alongwith identification of:
a) List of available technologies for Indian industry and
b) The agencies/groups/individuals for implementation.
8. Expected impact of recommendations, if implemented.
The study was carried out at two levels. While one team devoted itself to the literature survey about technologies that are being adopted in India and abroad, the second team carried out the field study.
The literature survey was an exclusive survey and the team also established contact with Research Laboratories and Technological Development Centers in India and abroad so as to find out the exact state of technological development, while the field team, with the help of a structured questionnaire, carried out with detailed discussions at individual and group level.
The results from the primary survey and the technology survey was collected and collated. Thereafter an indepth analysis of the chosen technologies was undertaken from various parameters. The major parameters kept in view while evaluating the technology were the appropriateness of technology, the cost of technology import, adoption, adaptation, the cost of implementing the technology and its acceptability in the Indian scenario.
III. The Need for treating the Distillery Effluents
- Liquid wastes from breweries and distilleries possess a characteristically high pollution load and have continued to pose a critical problem of environmental pollution in may countries.
- The principal pollution effects of the wastewaters of these fermentation industries on a water course are multiple in nature.
- High temperature of the wastewaters may instantaneously kill fish and other aquatic organisms, thus destroying the flora and fauna of a river, when the wastewaters are discharged into it.
- The most damaging effect of the wastewaters of the fermentation industries, especially distillery, on a stream is caused by high concentration of readily decomposable organic matters present in the waste waters.
- Due to decomposition of soluble and suspended organic matters present in the wastewaters, high BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) of the wastewaters results, causing rapid depletion of the oxygen content of the water, thus creating a foul smell.
- This further promotes growth of nuisance organisms an can render the stream totally unfit for propagating fish life and for the purpose of drinking, personal hygiene, recreation and other purposes.
- The distillery effluents, when drained into a water source, make it susceptible for the propagation of harmful microbes. Thus creating serious biological hazards like the generation and propagation of the water borne diseases.
- This required that the effluents of the distillery are either treated or utilized profitably. As some of the treatment process are costly, an alternative source of energy or money is required because the treatment of effluent will increase the overall cost of the production of alcohol., however it effluents are utilized, the profitability shall not suffer, as the products produced as a result of this utilization shall give additional revenue.
- So energy is harnessed as biogas from the effluents and may byproducts are obtained from this process. So by setting up a proper recycling unit, besides getting rid of these problems useful materials such as biogas, compost, potash etc. can be obtained.
IV. Cost of Recovery
An evaluation is made of the capital and the organization and management costs of treatment of the distillery spent was by different methods is assessed in details in a latter chapter.
Capital investment, organization and maintenance costs and pay back period of the biogas production, composting etc., has been discussed in accordance to their feasibility under the socio-economical condition in India is taken into consideration.
The limitations of this techno-market survey are as follows:
1. Financial restraints: Due to financial restraints, the study could not be carried out as it should have been. We were not able to visit the distilleries present in different parts of the world for a proper survey.
2. Reluctance in cooperation:- Many distilleries didn’t show any considerable interest in our study and were reluctant to cooperate with us.
3. Insufficient time: The total time given for the completion of the survey was too less for meticulous study.
VI. Total Market
During 1993-94, India produced 3,02,773 thousand liters of beer and 25,43,758 kiloliters of alcohol (which includes 5,55,012 KL of rectified spirit). At this production rate, 1993-94 38,145 million liters of effluent was generated from the distillery and 45,41,595 million liters of effluents from the breweries. If all the distilleries present in India produce biogas from their effluents, then they will produce about 2.0 million cubic metre of biogas per day, with a heat value of approximately 5000 Kcal/m. This is equivalent to saving of 2240 tonnes of coal per day, in turn avoiding CO2 of about 3100 tonnes per day (14).
VII. Action Plan
To recover biogas and other products of commercial importance from this type amount of effluent, proper technologies suitable for the Indian conditions is to be followed. Various agencies and departments concerned for this particular purpose are to be contacted. Institutions and organizations helping in this process i.e. for the transformation of the technological know-how (DST, MNES, MEF) and offering financial help (IREDA, Asian Development Bank) are to be sorted out.
Due to high the high cost of aerobic treatment of waste waters, it is not a suitable process for India. This process requires a larger area too. So anaerobic treatment for recovery of biogas is a suitable process. As far as adapting technologies for recovery plants are concerned, one should always keep in mind the following points:
- Its distance from the distillery
- Distance from the nearby town
- Distance from the nearby water source
- Efficiency under Indian conditions
- Compatibility with the distillery
- Social acceptance
- Establishment and operational costs
- Payback period
In case of composting the effluent by vermin filter process following points should be kept in mind.
- Proper breeding of the earthworms
- Eating habit of the earthworms
- Management of the soil condition for proper growth and development pf te earthworms
For composting by Alfa Laval, the problems to be faced are
- Irregular availability of the press mud
- no composting during rainy season
- Microbial culture is to be imported
- Only spent wash of high concentrations (of Biostil process)
For aquaculture, the following points are to be considered
- The culture fish much be able to adapt the effluent surrounding
- The fish must have high breeding capacity for lesser payback period
- It must be acceptable in the market.
In countries like India, the scope of recovery of potassium from incineration of dried distillery wastewater is a promising as India do not possess any natural deposits of potassium.
This techno market survey has been able to meet the objectives successfully by looking into the technological status of our country and comparing with the contemporary international technologies, thus identifying the gaps in the technologies and suggesting an action plan for overcoming it.
It has to be stressed that recovery from the distillery effluents is a better way to reduce the cost of the waste water treatment for decreasing its pollutional level, which is actually a very costly affair. So this is a matter of great importance for the Indian distilleries and breweries. Various recommendations are given for the setting of recovery plants in India.
Some effective issues in the areas of quality criteria wit respect to gaps in technologies and financial implication of implementing the technological options, has been highlighted in this study. It has also been mentioned throughout this study that several technological options are available in out country which need to be exploited in maximum so that not only it will help to control the pollutional problem created by the distillery waste waters, but also enable to derive importance by products which are commercially beneficial.