Industrial Pumps & Motor Systems

Code No:TMS152Price:Rs2300/-Category:Manufacturing


Year of Publication : 2001

Table Of Contents : INTRODUCTION- Indian Pump Industry, Energy Conservation for Industrial Pumps, Optimisation of Pump-Motor System, Industry Focus; INDUSTRIAL PUMP TECHNOLOGIES - Centrifugal Pump Technology, Positive Displacement Pump Technology, Domestic Market for Industrial Pumps, Export Market for Indian Pump Industry; ELECTRIC SELECTION- Parameters Influencing Pump Selection, Selection of Pump, Energy Conservation Measures for Pump; ELECTRIC DRIVES FOR PUMPS- Motor Construction & Types, Motor Sizing, Present Practices of Motor Selection, High Efficiency Motor, Variable Speed Drives, Economics of Frequency Variable Speed Drive; PUMP-MOTOR SYSTEM & PERFORMANCE - Pump & Motor Matching, Couplings, Submersible Pump, Magnetic Drive Pump, Canned Motor Pump, Practices in Industry affecting pump-Motor Performance, Economics of Pump Motor System, GNFC – Efficiency of Pump-Motor Set: Case Study; PUMP SYSTEMS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT INDUSTRY - Ahmedabad Sewage Treatment Facilities, Pune Sewage Treatment Facilities, Sewage Treatment Pump-Motor Systems Abroad, Inferences of Case Studies, Reliability in Sewage Pumps, Sludge Pumping, Dosing Pumps; PREFERRED OPTIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL PUMP-MOTOR SYSTEMS- Technological Status in Indian Pump Industry, Imported Pumps vs. Indian Products, Evaluation of Technology Options; RECOMMENDATIONS, ACTION PLAN & IMPLEMENTATION - Recommendation, Action Plan & Implementation, Expected Benefits, Spin-off Benefits.

  • Indian Pump Industry has more than 500 manufacturers with worker strength of over 30,000 producing 1 million pumps valued at Rs.12 billion. During the period 1978-94 pump industry has maintained an average growth of 15% p.a. The pump manufacturers are able to meet 84% of the domestic market demand and export pumps worth Rs.2 billion in 1997-98. It services all sectors of the Indian Industry viz. Agriculture, Public Health Engineering, Water supply, Chemical and process industries, Refinery and Petrochemical, Paper, Steel, Mining, Power Generation, Food Processing pharmaceutical, Sewage and Effluent treatment etc.
  • Pumps account for 30% of the power consumption in the country. Thus, efficient operation of pump system can yield substantial savings. The industrial Pump-motor system is a major determinant of cost of production in the industry by way of capital investment and running cost. Not only the pump and drive selected for optimal performance, but pump-motor system as a whole should be efficient and reliable and reliable.
  • TIFAC has therefore, commissioned Techno-market survey on industrial pumps and motor systems. Selection of pump-motor system would differ from one industry to another due to changes in application parameters, process parameters and liquid characteristics. Hence, it will not be practical to cover all industries in a single study. In this study Municipal Wastewater Treatment industry is taken as the focus industry.
  • Different pump technologies are available for transporting liquids under different operating conditions in the industry. The centrifugal pump technology, which works on a simple principle cover 85% of industrial applications. The high velocity head imparted to the liquid by rotation of impeller is converted into pressure due to increasing passage area of the volute.
  • The popularly used variations of CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TECHNOLOGY are:
  • End suction pump: Made in both horizontal as well as vertical execution, these types of pumps have advantage of being simple, low cost and compact and is generally the first choice of designer. Such pumps are manufactured to ISO:2858 for application in chemical and process industry and for refinery service pumps are made as per API 610 specifications.
  • Self-Priming Centrifugal Pumps :Pump casing is of unique design. Liquid is retained in it, which at the time of restarting, works as the intake for the impeller and pump is primed. The pump is used for dirty water, emptying pits and employed in situation where suction lift conditions are there. It has the advantage of avoiding foot valves – often a source of problems. Pumps fitted with open impeller are used in mining and construction industry and de-watering duty. The disadvantage is its higher cost and lower efficiency.
  • Split Casing Pumps : The Pump body is split in two half along the upper half of the body to be removed for carrying out maintenance to the rotating parts without disturbing suction or discharge pipeline. The pump has distinct advantage of ease of maintenance and is used for water supply services (for fire fighting, cooling water, raw water, cooling tower supply), mine de-watering and as bilge and ballast pump.
  • Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pump : In this pump, series of impellers are mounted on a common shaft. The liquid moves from one impeller to another with a volute or diffuser following each impeller such that the head increases progressively. The pump may be split axially or radially and has 2 to 15 stages. Pumps are used for pumping mine water from mine to surface level, boiler feed duty, high pressure booster systems, reverse osmosis etc.
  • Slurry Pump : this pump handles solids suspended in liquid in slurry form. The major concern in pumping slurry is the abrasive wear of pump components exposed to the liquid. Selection of best material for pump components to resist wear or to be isolate from the abrasive media is vital. Rubber-lined or hard metal End-suction pump are used. Pumps are deployed to handle mine slurries, fly ash slurry, mill scale, sand and gravel slurry, ceramic slurry etc.
  • Vertical Column Sump Pump : It is an end-suction pump in vertical orientation with the impeller submerged below the liquid. Such pumps are inexpensive as compared to self-priming pumps and simple to operate and maintain with added advantage of not requiring a mechanical seal. It is used to pump out variety of waste liquids from underground pits/sumps in different industries.
  • Vertical Turbine Pump : This is a multi stage pump in vertical execution in which the motor is installed at the surface level while the pump is located inside the liquid. The diffuser bowls are located in line with the impeller rather than outside of them as is the case in horizontal multi stage pump. The pump is used to handle large volume of raw water in drinking water and irrigation schemes, raw water intake in Thermal power plants, paper plants and fertilizer plants.
  • POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS have a positive sealing line formed between the pump elements and the liquid is displaced along this sealing line by movement of the pumping element. The pumping element may have reciprocating or radial motion. Different pumps working on this principle are;
  • Plunger / Piston Pump : Plunger or Piston reciprocates inside a cylindrical liner to displace liquid from suction to discharge port. Piston pumps may be single acting or double acting. Pump with single piston is called Simplex; with Two pistons – Duplex and with three pistons – Triplex. In Plunger pump, the reciprocating member is plunger but it is single acting only.
    Such pumps are used for metering services and high-pressure application. Variation of out put is achieved by adjusting the stroke length of the pump. High-pressure piston pump is used in oil producing sector, construction industry and cleaning application. Large pressure pulsation necessitates use of pulsation dampener.
  • Diaphragm Pump : The back and forth flexing of a diaphragm causes the liquid to flow into and out of the pump. The diaphragm may be moved mechanically or may be actuated by compressed air or hydraulic fluid. Check valves are provided at inlet and outlet port. These pumps are self-priming, seal-less, can run ‘dry’, and handle solids with liquids. Mechanically actuated Pumps are used for metering service, having accuracy of +/- 1%. Air operated diaphragm pump are used to handle sewage, slurries and other corrosive liquids. Pump produces pressure pulsation requiring use of dampener and has lower efficiency.
  • Eccentric Screw Pumps : a single-helix metallic rotor rotates inside double helix polymer stator. The rotor forms sealing line along its pitch length and liquid is carried in the cavity between the stator and the rotor. Pump can handle solids and viscous or sticky liquids. It has a gentle pumping action and has no valves that may get jammed. It is used to handle a variety of viscous liquids and abrasive slurries. The pump should not be run ‘dry’.
  • Twin Screw Pumps : Two screws intermesh with each other and rotate inside a pump casing. The liquid is transported between flank of the screw and the pump casing. The pump is used to handle the different fuel oils and other viscous liquids but cannot handle suspended oils. Its capability to run in ‘dry’ condition makes it ideal for unloading service.
  • Triple Screw Pump : This pump has a central screw driven by the prime mover while the other 2 screws are run by the center screw. Pumping action is similar to Twin screw pump. These pumps have higher efficiency and high pressure developing capability with added advantage of being compact. It is used for boiler fuel feeding application; power source for hydraulic lifts and in centralised lubrication system in large steel mills. The limitation of the pump is its incapability to handle solids and it cannot run ‘dry’.
  • Sliding Vane Pump : Vanes slide in the slots cut length wise in rotor and the rotor is inside an eccentrically shaped casing, which acts like a cam. The vanes are forced out by centrifugal force or due to spring so that sealing between casing wall and vane is maintained. Pumps are self-priming, of simple construction and have feature of self compensation for wear on the vanes. Pumps are employed for handling oil in lubrication service or as power packs for low pressure hydraulic motors. Pumps are unable to handle suspended solids, corrosive liquids and highly viscose media.
  • Gear Pump : The Gear Pump has two meshing gears rotating inside a casing. Liquid is carried between gear teeth and the casing and displaced as the teeth mesh. The pump is, economical, pulsation free and quiet in operation. External as well as Internal gear configurations are possible. Pumps are used for handling LDO, lube oil, fuel oil, paints, viscose and other clean viscous liquids. Pump cannot handle suspended solids and cannot run dry.
  • Lobe Pump : Pump has one or more lobes that rotate at slow speed inside the casing to displace the liquid. The wide spaces between the lobes and the slow speed make it ideal for handling fragile solids and shear-sensitive liquids. Pump output is subject to pressure pulsation and high amount of slip with low viscosity liquids. Pumps are employed to handle food products and pharmaceutical formulations.
  • Archimedean Screw Pumps : This pump has an inclined screw conveyor shaft rotating within a close fitting open type cylindrical conduit. The helical screw blades force the liquid along the inclined conduit. These pumps are used in sewage treatment industry for transfer of sludge.
  • Peristaltic Pump : It has roller or cam attached to rotor, which squeezes the tube as it passes across it, drawing the liquid in the tube and delivering it to the discharge side. The pump is seal-less and rotating element is not exposed to the liquid. Pump is used where high order of cleanliness and hygiene is essential; like pumping of human blood/plasma, other medical and bio-medical applications.
  • The capacity and pressure range as well as material options of different types of pumps described above is summarized in Annexure I. Table 5.3 & 5.4 compare total lifetime cost of different pumps for two typical applications in Sewage treatment industry.
  • Presently, the Indian market for centrifugal pump for industrial application is estimated to be Rs.65 million growing at a annual rate of 8%. The awareness level amongst user industries regarding application of positive displacement pump is lower as compared to centrifugal pump technology. This is also depicted by the fact that in India share of positive displacement pump in the domestic market is approximately 10% which in international market is approximately 20%. Market for positive displacement pump in India is valued at Rs.1.2 million. Piston / Plunger Pump has the largest share in this market followed by Screw pumps and Gear pumps.


While there are different pump technologies from which the plant designer has to select the pump, it is very important that correct selection is done for the type of pump, material of construction, shaft sealing and size of pump. There are various parameters which influence pump selection.
  • Application Parameters
  • Capacity
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Suction conditions or NPSHA
  • Point of installation of pump
  • Liquid Parameters
  • Chemical characteristics
  • Specific Gravity
  • Suspended solids and abrasion due to nature and size of solids
  • Viscosity and flow characteristics.
  • Process Parameters
  • Hygienic duty
  • Inline cleaning
  • Gentle handling of sheer sensitive liquid
  • Maintenance in place
  • Preliminary step for selecting a pump starts with estimation of capacity and differential head. Depending upon application, liquid and process parameters described above, type of pump is selected. This requires matching of different operating parameters with pump characteristics. Table 3.1 indicates type of pump to be used for commonly encountered liquids in different industries.
  • Having decided the type of pump to be used, pump sizing is done. Usually, pump manufacturer does the Pump sizing from the sizes available in his production programme.

    For centrifugal pump, care is taken to select a pump size in which the duty point is close to the best efficiency point of the pump.

    For positive displacement pump, the limitation on pump speed is considered based on parameters of viscosity, abrasion or NPSHA. The pump size, which gives the desired capacity within the above speed limit, is selected.
  • In both, Centrifugal as well as Positive displacement pump, the material of construction is determined by the chemical and abrasion characteristics of the liquid being handled at the pumping temperature. Appendix 1 lists variety of liquids and suitable material of construction options. Shaft sealing option is finalised in consultation with Packing / Seal manufacturer considering above factors.
  • AC induction motors are the most widely used prime mover for industrial pumps. AC induction motors of different construction and mounting configuration are available. The motors can be foot, flange or wall mounted. Different motor enclosures are :
  • Drip proof motor
  • Explosion proof motor
  • Flame proof motor
  • Vertical motor
  • Two speed motor
  • Submersible motor
It is important that motor is selected in a proper manner for long life and efficient operation. Different parameters which are important for selection of motor are:
  • Power required by the pump
  • Pump speed
  • Nature of Starting (Closed Valve / Open Valve)
  • Work condition like voltage and frequency of AC supply, presence of vapour / gas chemicals where motor is to be installed.
  • Efficiency
  • Temperature


  • Presently, selection of motor for driving the pumps is carried out with involvement of consultation 15% of cases pertaining to new projects. In 45% of cases, pump set complete with motor is procured from pump manufacturers while the balance purchases involve procurement of motor by the user organisations.
  • Indian manufacturers are producing motors of all types, which are comparable to those in the international market. Abroad, development of high efficiency motors has helped reduce energy losses in the motor. Energy efficient motors cost 15% to 30% higher than comparable standard motors but depending upon the application, the higher initial cost can be recovered by savings in the cost of energy.
  • Variable speed drive is used for pump having variation in discharge rate and provides power saving. Different types of variable speed drives are available, viz. Pulse Width Modulated inverter, Eddy current or slip coupling drive, Switched Reluctance Drive etc. Variable frequency drives are proven to be advantageous due to their higher efficiency, capability to integrate with drive control software.
  • Variable speed drive can regulate pump flow by consuming lesser energy in comparison to conventional method of using throttling valve on Pump discharge line. Savings in Power cost due to energy conservation by use of Variable speed drives can pay back the additional investment in cost of drive in a short span of time.
    Installation of variable speed drive requires that the site is well ventilated, free from corrosive fumes and radio frequency interference. Multiple pumps can be run by operating a single drive or individual drive with each pump can be installed.
  • In India, use of variable speed drive with pumps is limited at present due to:
  • high cost of variable frequency drive
  • misconception among engineers that such drives are sophisticated equipment requiring trained personnel for installation and operation
  • poor energy conservation efforts and
  • ignoring possible opportunity of power conservation in pumps of lower HP rating.
  • Abroad, favourbale experience of variable speed drive for power conservation in high HP equipment has led to development of micro drives. These are low cost drives for lower power rating pumps.
  • The pump and motor have to be matched for optimal performance. The torque-speed characteristics of the motor and pump should be matched to ensure availability of starting as well as running torque for the pump. The moment of inertia for the pump motor system ahs to be considered to determine the acceleration time for the motor to attain full speed. The starting torque of the motor is influenced by method adopted to start the motor. DOL starting provides higher starting toque in comparison to star delta starting.
  • The pump and motor are connected through flexible coupling which transmits the power. The coupling while transmitting power, takes the load of axial misalignment. Different types of flexible couplings available in India include tyre type coupling, pin and bush coupling, gear type coupling, spider coupling, spacer coupling etc.
  • Certain pumps are complete with motor like Submersible Pumps. The pump is close coupled with a motor, which is designed to operate while submerged in the liquid to be pumped. The motor is filled with oil and separated from the pumped liquid by a mechanical seal. This motor may be coupled to multi stage centrifugal pump or non-clog centrifugal pump for handling raw water, drinking water or sewage / effluents respectively.
  • The shaft sealing is often a cause of concern to plant designers particularly when the liquid being handled is highly obnoxious / toxic or hazardous. Seal-less pumps have been developed to cater to the requirement of this market segment. There are two types.
  • Magnetic Drive Pump : The mechanically driven pump has no physical coupling provided between pump shaft and the drive motor. Instead, a magnetic drives is used. The impeller of the pump is supported on plain bearing inside the isolation shell which also houses the inner rotor or flux receiving ring. Outside the isolation shell, an outer magnetic ring is rotated by the prime mover. Magnetic flux passes through the air gap in isolation shell to the inner rotor which follows the rotation of the outer rotor.
  • Canned Motor Pump : Pump and motor is an integral construction and there is no shaft seal. The pump section is identical to a conventional centrifugal pump. The motir is a 2 or 4 pole induction motor having stator and rotor canned within corrosion resistant non-magnetic liner and sleeve. The entire outside of the motor is enclosed in a secondary leakage containment shell. Primary protection is provided by corrosion resistant liners which are seam welded and assure that pumped liqued does not contact stator windings.
  • Seal-less pumps are used in nuclear power plants, refrigerant pumping, high temperature liquid handling, pumping of hazardous chemicals.
  • Consultants and pump manufacturers perceive that 28% of users can effectively and independently select pump. Related to operation and maintenance of pump-motor system, the percentage of users in similar category is much higher (71% and 90%). Consultants have elaborate vender registration and evaluation procedure. In the bid evaluation process, different technical parameters are compared by Consultants. Some of the consultants apply price loading for higher power consumption to lay emphasis on pump-motor system efficiency and equate pumps having higher running cost with those having lower running cost. However for spares consumption, no such equalisation procedure is presently being adopted for bid evaluation.


The performance of pump-motor system in the Indian industry is influenced by a number of parameters related to application aspects, operational aspects, maintenance aspects and other aspects as follows:
  • Application Aspects
  • Selection based on insufficient data
  • Inadequate data on duty condition with user.
  • Actual duty parameters differing from design duty point due to safety margins built in.
  • Selection of pump/Motor by Stockist or dealer.
  • Mismatch of Pump and drive characteristic.
  • User voluntarily decides on a cheaper pump compromising operational efficiency and service life.
  • Operational Aspects
  • Improper installation of Pump-Motor system.
  • Misuse / abuse of pump by user due to exigencies or ignorance
  • Violation of instructions, DO’S and DON’T’S by user due to ignorance or insufficient training.
  • Absence of Pump-motor performance Monitoring System.
  • Absence of Failure analysis system.
  • Maintenance Aspects
  • Inefficient preventive maintenance
  • Improper gland tightening
  • Use of spurious spares
  • Inadequate training for Maintenance of Pumps – more in case of Positive displacement pumps
  • Predictive techniques like Vibration analysis not used.
  • Other Aspects
  • Procurement of Pump-Motor system on initial cost basis.
  • No validation of quoted pump performance parameters prior to its delivery and installation
  • Poor awareness of energy costs and energy conservation measures at lower levels in the organisation.

The above practices need to be corrected to optimise performance of pump-motor system.

  • Sewage treatment plant of Ahmedabad and Pune were studied and compared with case studies of sewage treatment plants of other countries. It was discovered that:
  • In Indian plants non-clog centrifugal pumps are being used and consultants are invariably involved for detailed engineering and selection of pump-motor system.
  • In foreign countries, the trend is towards use of submersible pumps for sewage handling.
  • There is significant variation in volume of inflow of wastewater. In India, this variation is taken care of by operating one or more pumps depending on the volume of liquid to be handled. The trend abroad is to use pumps with variable speed drive resulting in substantial power saving.
  • There is no monitoring and measurement of performance of pump motor system after commissioning of sewage treatment plant in India. Abroad, sophisticated systems connected through modern to centralised computer are used to monitor the efficiency of pump-motor system and generate important data.
  • Use of non-clog centrifugal pumps, require construction of dry well for pump installation involving sizeable construction cost. Use of Submersible pump technology can eliminate this cost & offer additional advantage of lower maintenance, easy installation and accessibility of pump.
  • The pump-motor system consumes significant part of the total power employed for running sewage treatment plant.
Specific to sewage handling, different design modifications are carried out to major components like casing, impeller, wear plates and rings, shaft and bearing assemblies etc. Further, the material of construction for sewage pump is selected in a manner to provide longer useful life and reliability. Pumping of sludge in sewage treatment plant, pose challenge due to varying flow characteristics of the sludge. Digested sludge exhibit poor flow characteristics and pipe losses are much higher. Plunger and progressive cavity pumps are used for dense sludge. For dosing of flocculent and other chemicals for chemical treatment of the effluent, Piston or Diaphragm pumps are employed.
Technology development in Indian pump industry has taken place by way of technical collaboration with foreign manufacturers or through reverse engineering practices to produce pumps benchmarked against available products in the market of Indian or foreign origin. Indian pump industry is able to meet pump requirements of 95% of applications. The manufacturing capability includes pump of very high capacity and in variety of materials.
However, there is still room for improvement. The response of consultant and pump users rate imported pump better than Indian product on various counts like proven design, wider material options, better finish, better interchangeability, compliance to ISO 9000 quality assurance system and R&D back up. Further, the foreign manufacturers have extensive data base built over a long period of operation in the world market and supplemented by in-house trials.
Indian pump industry passing through a recession has to rise to the challenges and opportunities of the world market. Based on the assessment and evaluation of various technology options and present practices prevailing in the Indian Industry, following recommendations, action plan and implementation strategy is suggested:


Recommendations, Action Plan and Implementation

  • Pump manufacturers should focus on application of new materials for manufacturing Pumps with better performance, in terms of efficiency as well as reliability. In the international market, variety of high performance alloys and Non-metallic pumps are offered. For corrosive duties, Plastic materials and for abrasive liquids, Ceramic coating or pumps in ceramic construction have proved successful.

    Pump manufacturers in co-ordination with Regional Research Laboratories / Defence Laboratories / Material Science Laboratories for developing pumps in non-conventional materials.
  • Gear Pumps manufacturers should develop High precision Spinning pump, which are being imported at present and are required in large nos. by Man Made Fibre Industry Apart from design, manufacturers to focus on manufacturing aspects to achieve close tolerances for high metering accuracy.

    Gear Pump Manufacturers to work on this development and take assistance for machining from Tool rooms established with German collaborations.
  • Use of submersible pumps in sewage industry should be increased. This decision can be taken where new pumping stations are being planned or replacement of existing pumps is contemplated.

    Sewage Board/Municipal Corporation – Drainage/Sewage Treatment Department
  • Peristaltic Pump is not manufactured in India. Although manufacturing of this type of pump is not tricky, the material of hose or tube has to be such that it can withstand repetitive cyclic stresses for long service life. In long-term perspective, efforts to develop this pump should be directed towards solving this problem. In the short run, import of tube and manufacture of other components to produce it in India can be initiated.

    Pump manufacturer or other industrialist can venture into production based on feasibility study.
  • Awareness of applicability of Positive Displacement pumps has been found to be low due to which centrifugal pump is preferred by users. Most positive displacement pump manufacturers in the country are small/medium scale units. Joint efforts should be undertaken by them to increase awareness as well as train users for their product range. Application Engineering support provided to users by some manufacturers like Roto Pumps Ltd., has received good response and helped in increased usage of Positive displacement pump.

    Manufacturers of Positive Displacement Pumps to plan promotional measures and provide application engineering assistance.
  • Positive displacement pumps are manufactured and tested as per proprietary standards. Some of the consultants conduct testing of pumps as per API 676. Comprehensive standards & guidelines for PD Pumps should be published.

    BIS may undertake the work in consultation with Positive Displacement manufacturers.
  • Presently Magnetic Drive pumps are available indigenously through one or two manufacturers only. These manufacturers have collaboration with foreign manufacturers. This technology holds promise in future and indigenous capability should be built in this field. At first, pumps operating at normal temperatures may be developed by utilising experience of eddy current drive manufacturers.

    Centrifugal Pump manufacturers to develop Magnetic drive pumps in association with Eddy Current drive manufacturers for normal temperature and simple liquids.
  • Canned Motor pumps are being manufactured in the country by only one manufacturer at present. More manufacturers should enter this field. Since cost and time required for development of technology would be high, route of technical collaboration with foreign manufacturers may be explored.

    Pump manufacturers or other industrialists should put up facilities after feasibility study and tie up with foreign manufacturer.
  • Development of high efficiency motors should be undertaken by Indian motor industry. For development of better grade of steel for stampings to reduce losses, help from material research laboratories and steel industry can be taken.

    The motor manufacturers in consultation with IIT and Material Laboratories / Regional Research Laboratories / Defence Laboratories and help from steel industry.
  • A cooperative effort in Research and Development has been initiated in Coimbatore, where SiTarc (Small Industries Testing and Research Centre) has been set up to provide services to small units. Based on this expereience, a cooperative Research & Development organisation for Pumps may be initiated since majority of Pump manufacturers are in small scale and cannot afford their own R&D facility.

    Indian Pump Manufacturers Association can take the lead role to set up such a unit in consultation with Si Tarc and Pump and Pump manufacturers.
  • Whereas many units of organised sector have adopted ISO 9000 Quality Assurance systems, in the small-scale sector, it needs to be adopted at a fast pace. This would go a long way in improving quality of pumps of small-scale units and enable them to enter International market as well.

    Indian Pumps Manufacturer Association can canvass amongst it s members and arrange awareness cum training course in association with Si Tarc or other Quality Management Consultancy organisations.
  • The user industries should re-evaluate the duty parameters for pumps installed in their plant. In a big process plant, such an exercise will be costly as well as time consuming. It is suggested that based on annual power consumption of the Pumps, an ABC analysis may be applied. Top 10% of Pumps (by number), that consume maximum power on annual basis, should be taken up in the first phase for energy conservation exercise. Wherever feasible, pump and motor should be modified to operate close to their best efficiency point.

    User Industries to undertake such exercise in association with Pump manufacturers to optimise performance of existing Pump-Motor systems.
  • Awareness regarding incorporation of Variable speed drive with Pump should be accelerated. Suitable duty concessions to reduce price of Variable speed drives may be considered. Pumping applications, where variations in load characteristic are known to occur should be identified. All new procurements of pump for such applications should include variable speed drives. Wherever, Pumps for such applications are operating with fixed speed motors, a time bound plan for incorporating the variable speed drive has to be drawn up.

    Variable speed drive manufacturers to take the lead for canvassing use of VSD. User Industries to undertake the exercise in association with Pump manufacturers to identify potential applications for using variable speed drive. Govt. of India to consider duty concessions for Variable speed drive manufacturers.
  • User industry should adopt predictive techniques like vibration anlaysis for pre-empting pump-motor system breakdown. Further, use of spurious spares should be avoided to achieve better efficiency and higher service life of Pump-Motor system.

    Maintenance wing of user industries should undertake this exercise.
  • Presently the procurement procedure of many users lays emphasis on purchase price. Appropriate weightage for technological factors should be incorporated for technological factors should be incorporated. Total Life Cycle criteria should be used for bid evaluation so that Pump-Motor efficiency, Spares consumption, reliability etc. of different makes of pumps are properly assessed and compared.

    User Industries and Consultants to modify existing bid evaluation process.
  • Pump manufacturers should impart training to actual operators in user organisation, so that he understands the significance of various parameters affecting Pump-motor performance. This would ensure proper installation, operation and maintenance of Pumps, reduce occasions of Pump misuse / abuse and reduce downtime.

    Pump manufacturers to organise training modules at work site / manufacturing unit with the help of user organisations.
  • Government of India has made it mandatory for Limited companies to declare Energy conservation measures undertaken by the company in their annual financial statements. This has put Energy conservation measures in the agenda of top management level. However, it has to pervade down to all levels. It would be apt to consider implementation of energy audits at periodic intervals by independent organisations to have more focussed action in this regard.

    Government of India to formulate policy in consultation with Industrial bodies like CII, ASSOCHAM, FICCI.

Lastly, the Pump industry has to change the old mindset of focussing on domestic market only. Many investments that may not look lucrative enough in Indian context may be rewarding on International scale. Annexure –III summarises the organisations that can take up developmental work for Pumps and estimates the investment involved. Larger quantities in World market can help reduce costs due to economies of scale for Plastic pumps. Exposure of operating in world market will lead to benchmarking with competing products resulting in design and quality improvements.