Traffic Management Streamlining Technologies

Code No:TMS154Price:Rs2500/-Category:Transportation

 

Summary  : Traffic pattern on Indian Roads is highly heterogeneous in nature. There are around 30 million vehicles in India, which are growing at the rate of 15-17%. Therefore the transport demand is set to grow by 1.5 times in the next ten years. Delays, safety, parking and environmental problem are the main issues of traffic management. Average number of road accidents per thousand of vehicles is around 23, which is one of the highest in the world. Buses and trucks are responsible for 43% of the accidents. TIFAC has brought out a TMS study, which takes a very close look at the Traffic problems all over India in general and Delhi and Kanpur in particular. The report highlights all the available technologies for traffic management in India and abroad like demand and supply side management, supply management techniques, signaling technologies, incident reduction techniques, techniques for better passenger driver information system, technologies for overcoming parking problems and improved road safety related technologies. The report has also come out with area specific solutions for Delhi (ITO, Chandani Chowk, Cannought Place, Dhaula Kuan and Karol Bagh) and Kanpur(Meston Road and NAveen Market) with time frame for application and the cost estimates required for implementation.

Year of Publication : 2001

Table Of Contents : Executive Summary; Current Traffic Profile - India: Traffic Profile in Indian Cities, Problems/ Issues of traffic management; Traffic Management Technologies Status - World: Current Technology Status - World, Emerging technologies Trends, Technology Development Efforts By Various Countries; Traffic Management Streamlining - INFRASTRUCTURE Profile: Road Infrastructure, Various Agencies Involved in Infrastructure Development, Legal Support, Training Status, Research & Development Status, Equipment Manufacturers, International Support, Database, Standards; Traffic Profile of Selected Cities-Primary Survey Findings: Delhi, Kanpur; Traffic Management Technology Evaluation: Traffic Management Technology Viability Assessment, Future Investments Expected in traffic management technologies in sample cities, Traffic Management Technology Status solutions for other cities in India; Recommended Action Plan; ANNEXURES

Traffic Management: Streamlining Technologies: Executive Summary

Study Objective
To carry out a detailed techno market study on Traffic Management - streamlining technologies.

Scope of work
The scope of the report covers the status of traffic management streamlining technologies that have been developed and implemented all over the world and its market in India. It involves detailed traffic analysis of representative cities and the present status of technologies that have been implemented and practiced. Parameters that are critical towards deciding the market for traffic management streamlining technologies have been analyzed. The future market of the technologies identified and the investments required to be worked out.

Importance of the topic
The study is of great importance at present due to the bad state of traffic management in India. In the past decades, although there have been technological improvements in almost all fields, the state of traffic management technologies is still at a primitive level. In future, for the overall development of the country it is important that infrastructure, of which road traffic is a very important part, should be made state-of-the-art. This makes the study very valid in the present conditions.

Limitations
The limitations experienced in carrying out the assignment is the non availability of proper data bases with the city authorities about their traffic profiles related to vehicle mix, average delays, intersection traffic counts etc. Also, there are not many state-of-the-art technology suppliers available in India. So most of the contacts were established with international agencies to get the latest technological developments.

Our Major observations / findings and Analysis

Current traffic profile - India

Traffic pattern on Indian roads is highly heterogeneous in nature. There are around 30 million vehicles in India which are growing at the rate of 15-17% annually. The 23 metros contribute towards 35% of the total motor vehicles in the country. In terms of numbers on road two-wheelers dominate the scene with about 65% of share in total number of vehicles whereas in terms of percent share of trips, buses cover the maximum passenger kms of about 36% of total. Vehicular ownership is very low in our country with only 26 vehicles per thousand of population as against 533, 546, 623, 315 and 197 motor vehicles per 1000 of population in France, Germany, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore respectively. In India work trips are the most important component of the traffic demand during peak hours of the day. Transport demand is likely to increase by about 2.5 times from 1991 to 2010 in large metros and other medium sized cities by about 3-3.5 times. Indian traffic and transport system has a number of drawbacks which causes problems of delays, unsafety, pollution and inadequate parking. Average number of Road accidents per thousand of vehicles is around 23, which is one of the highest in the world. NMT (Non Motorised Transport) are involved in about 60-65 % of the road accidents and share of pedestrians is also very high standing at about 40%.

Traffic management technology status - World

Traffic management technologies have been developed primarily in Europe, America and Japan. Technologies have been developed in view to counter traffic related problems which are broadly Travel delays, parking problems and safety problems. The causes of these problems have been tackled through technology intervention of various levels.

The causes of delays are demand and supply gap, inefficient signaling systems, Incidents on the roads, scarcity of infrastructure, inefficient passenger information systems and delays due to tolls. The technology solutions that have been developed around the world include the following:
  • For proper travel demand management, the techniques being used are Car pooling, Park & Ride systems, odd even auto restrictions, staggering of office hours and congestion pricing. Case studies from Japan ands Singapore show that these techniques if properly implemented can improve traffic scenario. On the supply management side the techniques involve either provision of more road infrastructure or introduction of better mass transport systems. Efficient bus systems with priority lanes / signals and innovative mass transit systems like Rail rapid transit (RRT), Shuttle loop transit (SLT), Group rapid transit (GRT), personal rapid transit (PRT) and LRT (light rail transit) have been developed and used all over the world. Every city has adopted any one of these systems according to the needs. Other associated technologies like Intelligent Community Vehicle System, automatic ticketing systems add to the streamlining of mass transit systems.
  • A lot of technologies have been developed in the field of signaling systems. The trends of traffic signals has evolved from fixed time programmed signals towards detector based real time traffic signals. Technology inputs have improved both on hardware and software sides of signaling systems. In real time systems, detectors are installed on every intersection, that counts the number of vehicles that queue at any intersection arm. The inputs from the detector are processed by a controller software and signals are synchronized in such a way that heavy traffic paths are given longer clearways. A lot of technological improvements have been reported in hardware such as detector types, controllers, connectors, signals. Similarly there are a number of softwares developed like SCOOT, SCAT, MOVA. Associated software like ASTRID, INGRID are used for real time traffic data analysis and incident detection.
  • Another set of technological development is in the form of incident detection systems which contribute substantially to traffic systems. Automatic incident and congestion detection systems have been developed which use on road sensors to send information to control room for immediate recovery. Further congestion is avoided through radio information broadcasts, surveillance television broadcasts, airborne video. Simulation models have been developed to assist in incident recovery and traffic diversion strategies.
  • Passenger / driver information systems have been developed in the form of Comprehensive Automobile Traffic Control systems, Internet based route systems, Electronic route guidance system, telephone information service, Driver Information and early warning systems. All these systems encompass technologies to assist the driver to decide the best transit route. Variable message signs have been designed to inform the driver of the real time parking spaces available, lane traffic conditions, incidents on the lane, weather conditions. Other systems involve better information systems at bus stands that inform the commuter about the bus routes, time of the next bus arrival, fare structure etc. Other associated technologies include Automatic vehicle locating systems which use the conventional Global positioning systems.
Next set of traffic problems are related to parking problems. This is caused either by lack of parking space or inefficient parking systems. Technologies have been developed in the field of multi level parking spaces that have multi directional entry points. technology advancements have taken place in the field of parking systems which include multi locational variable message signs giving the real time parking status of all the adjoining parking spaces. Similarly automatic parking ticketing systems have been practiced where prepaid parking cards can be used in machines. Advancements in the form of Parking advisory systems are also being developed.
Road safety problems are caused due to a number of factors like mixed traffic conditions, rule violations, lack of enforcement, improper warning systems, and lack of driver training. Technology intervention has been in the form of changeable message signs in controlling vehicle speeds in work zones, automatic truck rollover warning system, collision avoidance systems, thermal imaging cameras and simulator based driver training technologies . Violation detection equipment like lane cameras, speed detectors, signal jumping detection cameras have been developed and installed. These cameras are connected to well equipped interceptors that have computerized fine/ ticketing systems.

Emerging technology trend is towards Expert area traffic control systems, Automated highway systems and Internet commerce. Expert area traffic control systems are real time system where in the controller can take decisions in abnormal traffic situation much as a human would do. Trials are in the process for development of these systems. Automated highway systems include specialized vehicles that can be operated on a hands off mode with built in collision avoidance systems and lane / speed systems. Commerce through internet would indirectly reduce the travel demand on roads.

Traffic Management Streamlining - Infrastructure Profile

Maintenance of transport infrastructure in India is a responsibility of many agencies operating at central and state level. These agencies include PWD, MOST, Municipal corporations, STU's etc. Traffic regulation is the sole responsibility of the traffic police of the area. Apart from these there are many other private and government organisations which act as support agencies. This multiplicity of agencies has led to ineffective transport management in India. The transport infrastructure in India can be studied in terms of road infrastructure, Training institutions, research base, technological capabilities, database availability etc.

Road infrastructure in India is highly inadequate both in quantum and quality. The main drawback on the road system are heavy encroachments on major roads, poor surface condition and inadequate surface drainage.

There are not many training institutes in the country. SPA, IIT etc. provide courses in traffic engineering and transport planning but there is a lack of driver's / traffic police/ road user training institutes.

There are institutes like CRRI, VRDE etc. in India involved in the research work in the field of roads and automobile engineering however, there is not much research activity going on for technology development in the sector of traffic management. Although there are quite some traffic equipment manufacturers in India, they lack technical know how for manufacturing more sophisticated and effective equipments.

There are many studies done by the organisations like CRRI, CIRT, RITES etc. on various aspects of Traffic and Transportation Planning in India which include Policies, planning, forecasting, public mass transport, personalised transport, Intermediate public transport and general studies. Even TRRL has also done some studies for Indian Cities. Apart from these, there are many traffic and transport related websites which are a very good source of latest information on technologies and techniques. Also there are many International and National Journals on traffic and transportation management.

Traffic management status - sample cities

In order to study the traffic related problems in Indian cities we have taken two cities viz. Delhi and Kanpur as the representative of major metros and mini metros respectively.

Delhi : Delhi is one the mega metropolitan cities of India. Average income level of the city falls between 2000-5000 per month. Road based transport is the primary system of commuting in Delhi and road based mass transport system carry around 5 million passenger trips per day. There are around 2.8 million motor vehicles in Delhi (growing at the rate of 0.2 mn vehicles per year) with a dominance of personalised vehicles. Around 60% of the road traffic here, consists of fast moving vehicles only. Around 63% of the trips are catered by buses run by public and private bodies. Increased transport demand ,greater migration from other areas etc. have created a problem of congestion on roads. Major areas prone to congestion are ring road, ITO, Najafgarh road etc.. Apart from this, there are many other problems like unsafety on roads, pollution and lack of parking space which need immediate attention.Traffic management technology in Delhi has presence in the form of signalized intersections, grade separators, interceptors etc. Also, recently many new initiatives like implementation of MRTS, flyovers, declaring of traffic free zones, proposal to install real time adaptive Area Traffic Control systems etc. have been taken to reap long and short term benefits.

Kanpur : Kanpur is an industrial town with major Central Business Districts (CBDs) located in North central part of the city. Non motorised transport is the most prevalent mode of travel in Kanpur which is evident from the fact that in Kanpur, around 42% of the traffic consist of cycles and cycle rickshaws. Among motorised vehicles two-wheelers constitute more than 80% of the vehicular population. Ratio of fast to slow moving vehicles on roads is 4:6. Motorised vehicles are growing at an annual growth rate of around 6.7% and Non Motorised Vehicles like Cycles are growing at the rate of 5.3% per year. Dominance of slow moving vehicles is the cause of delays, congestion and accidents in Kanpur. Political interference, poor infrastructure, poor enforcement and public unawareness about traffic rules and regulation are some of the other serious issues relating to traffic management in the city. There are practically no traffic management technologies being used in Kanpur.

An overview of the Primary Survey Findings from the sources like R&D institutes, Government Organisations, Technology Suppliers, Road Users and Traffic Police is given in Annexure no. 57.

Traffic management technology evaluation

After having discussed the technology status of traffic management around the world, and the traffic situation in 2 sample cities, application possibilities of these technologies in context of Indian traffic conditions have been assessed. As a precursor to assessment of technology solutions, technologies have been segregated and critical issues of Indian traffic conditions have been identified.

Technologies have been divided into 5 groups which are short term traffic management techniques (which include regulatory techniques, demand management techniques, Bus priority techniques and others), passive traffic management systems (Fixed time traffic signals, signal hardware, passive passenger information systems, violation detectors), Incremental infrastructure (includes road improvements, flyovers, pedestrian subways, parking lots and others), Active traffic management systems (Detector based traffic signals, variable message signs for parking/incident/violation detection, traffic sensors) and Expert traffic management systems.

Peculiarities of Indian traffic conditions include a very large population base, scarcity of funds, political interference, extreme variation in vehicle types, illiteracy of drivers / commuters, corruption, extreme weather conditions, lack of electricity, lack of space for road widening, high population of low and middle class.

Technology allocation have been carried out for the sample cities - Delhi and Kanpur, taking into account the criticalities of Indian conditions. Solutions have been discussed on 2 levels, which are Area specific solutions and general solutions for the city.

  • For Delhi 5 critical areas namely ITO intersection, Cannaught Place, Karol Bagh area, Chandani Chaunk and Dhaula Kuan intersection have been discussed.
  • For ITO intersection the solutions include traffic diversion through arterials, development of car pooling systems, Program the fixed time systems, Install better signboards, time tables, route charts to aid passengers, Inform passengers 1 Km in advance about diversions, Better communication system within traffic personnel on Vikas Marg, ITO flyover, Yamuna bridge, build pedestrian subway at intersection of B.S.Z Marg, Tilak Marg & IP Marg and enforce proper usage.
  • For Chandani Chaunk the solutions include traffic diversions, synchronization of traffic signals, segregation of slow and fast moving vehicles, ban certain categories of vehicles like thellas, tongas etc. ;make the core Chandani Chaunk vehicle free, build convenient parking spaces, operate battery buses in the area.
  • For Karol Bagh area, plan traffic diversion / segregation, priority to high occupancy vehicles, synchronisation of traffic signals, rule enforcement (on road parking, overspeeding), construction of parking lots /subways, installation of variable message signs at entrance of area (to indicate parking spaces, one way restrictions)
  • For Dhaula Kuan area, segregation of traffic towards various arterials, installation of LED based signals, synchronisation of traffic signals, construction of flyover, installation of cameras/sensors on ring road and maintain a control room. Variable signs to be installed at vital positions for incident messages, real time traffic speeds. traffic situation in the area to be reported on radios, television. Enforce strict lane discipline for buses.
  • For Cannaught Place solutions include car pooling, traffic diversions, installation of LED based signals, make the area vehicle free (by diverting through traffic on arterial roads & build parking spaces for all radials), installation of 'Area traffic control systems' in the form of detector based signals programmed by SCOOT, SCAT, MOVA softwares. Trials to be conducted first to customise the ATC system for the area.
  • Some general solutions for the whole of Delhi include:
  • Encourage car pooling,
  • Implementation of MRTS
  • Incremental technologies for traffic signal hardware
  • Parking control standardisation
  • Automated toll collection for buses,
  • Bus lane implementation
  • Procure state-of-art violation detection equipment
  • Better signs, route maps and signals
  • Better passenger information systems in the form of variable message signs
  • Efficient licensing systems
  • Trials for applicability of 'Area traffic contro systems' in areas
  • For Kanpur, Navin market area has been considered for the area specific solutions. This area has extreme congestion. The solutions possible include segregation of slow and fast moving vehicles, strict rule implementation (against encroachments, over speeding, on road parking), construction of pedestrian subways, installation of high masted traffic signals that are synchronised properly. Infrastructure improvement in the form of road widening, footpath maintenance, dividers etc to be undertaken.

The general solutions for Kanpur as a whole include segregation of slow moving and fast moving traffic, building of appropriate parking places; Installation/ synchronisation and maintenance of traffic signals, introduction of a state owned bus transport network, to build awareness about traffic rules, to ban certain slow vehicles on major roads, to build By-pass for inter city traffic.

Future Investments expected in traffic management technologies in sample cities have been calculated on the basis of present penetration of technologies and the future expected penetration of these technologies in Delhi and Kanpur.

For Delhi, the expected penetration of various technology groups and investments required for implementation in the next decade, have been given in table

Table a: Future expected penetration and investment in traffic management technologies in Delhi

 

  Present penetration Expected penetration in year 2004

Expected investment between year1999 - 2004 (Rupees in Crores)

Expected penetration in year 2009

Expected investment between year 2004 - 2009 (Rupees in Crores)

Short term traffic management techniques

50%

70%

20

75%

25

Passive traffic management systems

40%

60%

60

70%

90

Incremental infrastructure

35%

45%

100

55%

200

Active traffic management systems

5%

10%

70

25%

160

Expert traffic management systems

0%

2%

30

5%

75

Total    

280

 

550

The total investment expected towards implementing technologies of various groups by the year 2004 will be Rs 280 crores and by the year 2009 will be Rs 550 crores. It is expected that the investments in the area of infrastructure development like flyovers, cycle tracks, pedestrian grade separators; will be the maximum in the next decade. Next will be the investments on development of the existing passive traffic systems and new active traffic systems. However in the subsequent 5 years (2004 - 2009) the investments on passive systems would be reduced and funds will be diverted towards developing active traffic management systems

For Kanpur, the expected penetration of various technology groups and investments required for implementation in the next decade, have been given in table

Table b: Future expected penetration and investment in traffic management technologies in Kanpur

 

  Present penetration Expected penetration in year 2004

Expected investment between year1999 - 2004 (Rupees in Crores)

Expected penetration in year 2009

Expected investment between year 2004 - 2009 (Rupees in Crores)

Short term traffic management techniques

35%

45%

10

55%

20

Passive traffic management systems

20%

35%

45

50%

90

Incremental infrastructure

20%

25%

40

30%

100

Active traffic management systems

0%

2%

20

5%

50

Expert traffic management systems

0%

0%

0

0%

0

Total    

115

 

260

The total investment expected towards implementing technologies of various groups by the year 2004 will be Rs 115 crores and by the year 2009 will be Rs 260 crores. As can be seen the maximum emphasis in the next decade will be on improving passive traffic systems (like traffic lights, passenger information systems) and infrastructure like roads, subways, grade separators, bypasses. Meanwhile investments will be made to test a few active traffic management systems. Continual investment will be made to implement more short term traffic management schemes to manage traffic in Kanpur.

Traffic management Technology solutions for other cities in India can be assessed by the technology allocation possibilities for the sample cities. On the macro level, the technology options applicable to the sample cities can be replicated to other cities of the same type with certain degree of accuracy. However on a micro level, the technology applications are specific to city types and further to a specific city area type. For allocation of technologies to any city, detailed analysis of needs to be carried out to come to a general solution for the city.

Our major recommendations

POLICY FORMULATION:
  • Constitute a core committee consisting of members from traffic police, city development authority, research institutes, ministry of urban transport, traffic experts, transport consultants, infrastructure funding agency. All decisions planning, coordinating and monitoring about traffic planning, coordinating and monitoring in the area to be taken by this committee only.
  • Declare traffic management as a priority area. Make a traffic technology mission to undertake studies related to customized technologies for cities.
TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION
  • Establish a research centre TRECDEC (Transportation centre for developing countries) catering to the needs of the developing countries only.
  • Design for the urban bus and appropriate urban car to suit Indian conditions needs to evolved and a few manufacturers encouraged to take up R&D efforts and manufacture these. Options like automatic ticketing systems, in vehicle computer assisted route directions, GPS related vehicle locating systems, on vehicle transponders for remote tolling should be considered for fitting in buses and cars.
  • Set up a dedicated 'Transportation research centre' that caters to specific transportation related problems in Indian cities.
  • For major metros, trials should be done on area traffic control systems.
  • Install better passenger information systems in the form of road signs, route maps, high masted directions. Technology upgradation in terms of variable message signs
FUNDING REQUIREMENTS
  • A centrally sponsored loan financing institution ( Similar to National Housing Bank ) i.e., Urban Transport Infrastructure Development Bank (UTIDB) should be organised
  • Government to issue a policy document laying down broad guide lines for resorting to public private partnership in the provision of traffic related facilities and services,
  • Rail based mass transit facilities should be developed in the private sector participation on BOT, BOOT or BOO concepts
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION
  • Bring about necessary changes in the Motor Vehicles Act 1988
  • Enhance the traffic police staff strength to the required number
  • Declare a number of no tolerance zones in the city according to location criticality
DEMAND MANAGEMENT
Set up area-wise carpooling agencies to promote car pooling.
POLICE-PUBLIC INTERACTION
  • Involve community participation in the enforcement of traffic rules. N.G.O's, trade associations, group housing societies, Educational Institutions, NSS groups, etc. can be encouraged
  • Parking coordination committees should be formed in cities in order to plan, regulate and control parking spaces
TRAINING
  • Traffic police personnel should be given appropriate training on regular basis and they should be provided facilities for upgrading their knowledge periodically.
  • Unify agencies to impart driving training and also issue of driving licenses.
DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE
  • Install Road Information Management System (RIMS), which is a huge database management system
  • A central accident information system is necessary for evolving common strategy to reduce accidents on our roads.
  • Periodical traffic surveys should be conducted in all million plus cities and selected cities with lower population by each state at least once in five years .
  • The data collected should be analysed and conveyed to a central pool for later reference and dissemination for studies by different institutions