Utilisation of Slaughter House Waste Material for the Preparation of Animal Feed

Code No:TMS162Price:Rs1860/-Category:Environment: Recovery


Summary  : India ranks topmost in the world in livestock holding and has the potential to utilize slaughterhouse by products to partly meet the growing requirement of animal feeds. The total availability of offal/bones in the country generated from large slaughterhouses is estimated to be more than 21-lakh tonnes/annum. Besides other uses, it can also be used for the preparation of animal feeds. The total requirement of animal feed has been estimated at 37 million tonnes. This includes 24 million tonnes of cattle feed (which as per the directive of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Govt. of India cannot have slaughter house waste material). Slaughterhouse waste material has the potential to partly replace 13 million tonnes of animal feed material. Slaughterhouse wastes can be used as inputs to feeds for the poultry, fi8sh and pets like dogs and cats. Presently in India, live stock feed production is more of cereal based and less of animal by-product based. This results in livestock, especially poultry, pig and fish competing with humans for grains and cereals which can easily be replaced with slaughterhouse waste. Slaughterhouse waste is first converted into intermediate products like Meat Bone Meal (MBM), Di0calciumphosphate (DCP) & bicalphos (BCP) which are essentially feed supplements. They are then mixed with various crop ingredients to make a complete feed for animals. Meat Bone Meal is a protein is a protein and phosphorous supplements for animal feed manufacturers. It is used upto 5% of total feed. DCP and BCP are essentially phosphorous supplements for animal feed manufacturers and are used to the extent of 1% of total feed. Currently total production of MBM in India is around 55200 tonnes/annum and total estimated demand is 77500 tonnes/annum. So the gap between production and supply of MBM is around 22300 tonnes/annum. Leading manufacturers of MBM in India are Standard Agro Vet (P) Ltd., Allanasons Ltd., Hind Agro Ltd., Al Kabeer, Hyderabad. Similarly the total production of DCP in India is a around 27600 tonnes/annum and total demand is 34800 tonnes/annum. Therefore the gap between production and demand of DCP is approximately 7200 tonnes/annum. Leading manufacturers of DCP in India are Hind Nihon Ind. Ltd., Muradnagar, Punjab Bone Meal, Jullundar, Kerala Chemical & Proteins Ltd., Cochin & Shaw Wallance Ltd, Jabalpur.  The report gives an overview of the different technologies available in India & abroad for utilization of slaughterhouse waste. The technologies, categorized broadly into Open kettle rendering, wet rendering and dry rendering, are simple in nature. The processes involved are basically pre breaking, cooking, sterilization, fat removal, drying and finally milling and bagging. The broad parameters of technology of wet and dry rendering are mentioned. In India Open Kettle rendering is followed, which is less efficient. The equipments are required for mobile wet rendering plants are detailed. The report also describes mobile plants, which may be more suitable to India’s requirement, as we have low capacity slaughterhouses scattered in different places. Currently the vast gap between demand and supply of intermediate products like MBM, DCP, BCP etc. is being met by use of substitutes like Soya meal, Meat meal and Fishmeal. There is a vast potential for setting up slaughterhouse waste processing plants for manufacture of MBM/BCP ad feed supplement. The report on \"Utilization of Slaughterhouse Waste Material for the Preparation of Animal Feed\" highlights all the above issues and is an ideal guide to entrepreneurs & industries who are interested in setting up plants for utilization of slaughterhouse waste.

Year of Publication : 2001

Table Of Contents : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY : Scope of Work, INTRODUCTION:  Background, FEED CHARACTERISTIC AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS: Preparation of Animal feeds using growth promoters, MARKET SIZE AND POTENTIAL- DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL: Demand for gains and Cereals for feeding animals- Current production and demand of animal feed prepared from slaughter house waste, SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE AVAILABILITY: Availability of slaughterhouse waste in India, COST ESTIMATION: Cost of technology, OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTION PLAN: Feeding for higher production, GOVERNMENT POLICIES:- Regulatory Constraints - Policies affecting the development of livestock and feed industries- Public spending in the livestock sector,ANNEXURES

Utilisation of Slaughter House Waste Material for the Preparation of Animal Feed

On this page...

  • Scope of Work
  • Objective of the Study
  • Importance of the Topic
  • Methodology Followed
  • Limitations
  • Major Observations/Findings and Analysis
  • Recommendations and Action Plan

Scope of Work

The current status of the technology in the World and in the country. The current market (domestic/International) sizes and the potential. Assessment of the technology, resources parameters such as energy, raw material, infrastructure and manpower etc. The preferred technology options available to the country.

  • Short term & long term economic aspects of preferred options alongwith their feasibility's.
  • Impact of the preferred option (itself and its – spin offs)
  • Availability of slaughterhouse waste in different parts of our country, the economics of waste collection, transportation & storage and the infrastructure required.
  • Assessment of different technologies for production of animal feed available in India – its socioeconomic and environmental impact.
  • Highlighting any specific area where technology development is necessary.
  • Cost estimates and plan for implementation.
  • Finding out specific industries/agencies interested in participating/taking the following up actions.

For implementation of recommendations the various critical inputs (such as raw materials, capital goods and human resources) required and their availability, investments required to commercialize etc to be quantified and techno – economic benefits to be evaluated in terms of existing and new suggested ones.


Objective of the Study

Feed constitutes the largest single factor in the cost of production of animals of all kinds. Feeding practices and feeds in use today range from excessively costly to nutritionally inadequate and from highly efficient to wasteful materials. In order to achieve a successful feeding program, one should be able to provide proper nutrients at the least cost. The nutrient requirements of most of the animals including poultry are well known; it is a matter of matching the ingredients to supply the required nutrients in correct proportion.

Feed Products in India are mostly based on ingredients derived from crop residues promoting competition between the men and the animals for foodgrains. On the other hand India has rich resources of slaughterhouse by products which are also the better source of proteins and minerals but most of it going waste. Utilization of this so called waste material, in the production of animal feeds will not only solve the problem of nutritional needs of animals but also helps in reducing the environmental pollution which is caused by the unused animal tissues lying scattered all over the rural as well as the urban areas.

This Report evaluates the feasibility of utilization of the slaughterhouse wastes by products for the production of different animal feeds like poultry, pet food, cattle feed, pig feed and also the feed required for fish production.


Importance of the Topic

The annual requirement of feeds and fodder are estimated to be 25.4 million tones of concentrates, 353.0 million tones of dry fodder and 308.1 million tones of green fodder. However, only 16.5 million tones of concentrates, 300.5 million tones of dry fodder and 261.0 million tones of green fodder are available. The gap between the availability and requirements of concentrates and green fodder is very wide, and there is a short fall of 44 percent for concentrates and 38 percent for green fodder. In terms of digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients, the shortfall is about 34 percent and 37 percent, respectively. Following Table E-1 illustrates the domestic production of animal feed by members of Compound Livestock Feed Manufacturers Association (CLFMA)


TABLE E-1 : Production of Compound Livestock Feeds by CLFMA Members
(All figures in X 1000 tones)



Cattle & other feeds

Poultry feeds







































1475.3 (OF:15:2)




1370.8 (OF:14.8)




1465.1 (OF:18.9)




1542.8 (OF:29.9)




1528.6 (OF:24.1)




1430.7 (OF:18.8)




The Zone-wise production of compound feed by the CLFMA is as follows:

TABLE E-2 : Zonewise Production of Feed in India (000'Tonnes)



Cattle and other Feeds

Poultry Feeds


South zone




North zone




West zone




East zone








Fishing and Fish Products of India

India, with a long coastal line of above 7500 km and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.20-million sq. km. has vast potential of marine fishery sources. It is estimated that about 3.9 million tones of fish can be annually harvested from this area. However, the present annual marine fish production is about 2.6 million tones.

However, the overall fish production in India is very high which also generates large amount of fish waste. This is a good source of protein and can be converted in to fishmeal to be used for feeding many animals including poultry and pig.


Animal Feed Production in the Country

Compounded feed to milch and meat animal is supplied by livestock industry in organized and unorganized sectors. The organized sectors of southern - western region produces about 80% feed for poultry and milch animals. Northern region produces only 9% and eastern less than 2%. Total compounded feed production in India is about 5 million tones for cattle and 5 million tones for poultry. Share of organized sector in 1998-99 was 2.938 million tones, cattle 1.50 and poultry 1.41 million tones.

The global as well as domestic demand for livestock products is continuously increasing. The current production of livestock feed in India is only about 50% of the total demand. Estimates of availability of nutrient resources of livestock as reported by policy advisory group, Ministry of Environment and Forest indicates nearly a 50% gap in the availability of concentrate feed and nearly 25% short fall in green fodder.

The compound feed industry is an integral part of animal husbandry. Its main objective is to provide scientifically formulated and nutritionally balanced feed at the least cost. The feed industry in India started in mid-sixties and produced about 1,50,000 tones of compounded feed in 1964. Since then, the industry has made several strides in producing better quality feed to meet the needs of today’s animals. Presently, the industry produces over five million tones of compounded feed. The members of the Compound Livestock Feed Manufactures’ Association of India (CLFMA) currently produce about 3.5 million tones of feed per annum, registering an average growth of 15 per cent per annum. The association members produce mainly cattle and poultry feed. Since the livestock, especially poultry, pig and fish competes with human for high quality protein, the demand for grains and cereals is high. India faces nearly 50% deficiency in concentrate feed which is expected to show further increase by 2010 AD.


This deficiency in food production can be removed only when there are alternate feed resources for reducing the composition of crop residues in the animal feed and in substituting with the unconventional ingredients like slaughter house waste materials. India has vast resources of varied types of animal by products, which can be used in the production of animal feed. This report basically tries to evaluate the techno economic feasibility of this exercise, its limitations, economical and environmental benefits.

India is entering into a critical stage in 21st century to meet the need of the compounded feed. There is no shortage of slaughterhouse waste material for the manufacture of animal feed. On the other hand the availability of grains may be a factor of worry for the feed manufacturers. The use of animal waste or its content in animal feed should be enhanced. This will not only reduce the consumption of grains but will also increase the nutritional value of feed stuff. The animal tissues contain numerous proteolytic enzymes, which help in increasing the digestibility of the feed.


Methodology Followed

The Techno market study for "Utilization of Slaughter house waste material for the preparation of animal feed" was conducted mainly in three stages. All activities have been correlated to each other to meet the objective of the study.

1. Desk Research

The desk research carried out pertained to:

  • Information from, journals, seminar proceedings etc. on the following topics:
  • "Technology" for preparation of the animal feed from slaughterhouse waste products.
  • Quantitative figure of byproducts/ products extracted from animals.
  • Indian/World market in animal feed production.
  • Type and specification of various animal feed products available at National and International level.
  • Collection of published information from libraries of reputed institutions related to topics. The main libraries visited were:
  • ICAR
  • DBT
  • I.A.R.I
  • University of Delhi
  • C.S.I.R.
  • Technology for different processes of conversion of slaughterhouse wastes.
  • Preparation of major types of animal feeds.
  • Estimation of market potential within India and abroad for the feed products.


2. Preliminary Primary Research was carried out on following aspects

a) Trends of industry

  • Status of industry
  • Production capacity
  • Export potential
  • Technology followed for preparation of animal feed extracted from
    institutes and scientists.
  • Technology modernization/suggestions.
  • Manpower engaged.
  • Collection of information regarding implementation of such industry.
  • Sources of raw material and energy.
  • Capital (from commissioning to production).
  • Man power.
  • Existing market (India/World). Imports/ Exports
  • Products Extracted
  • Technology (Economic point of view).
  • Effects on environment


b) Questionnaires / Check list for

  • Scientists/experts from different organizations and institutions.
  • Industries engaged in animal feed production and marketing
  • Animal feed manufacturers.

The data collected from these respondents pertained to:

  • Existing technology in India/World wide.
  • Present manufacturer of animal feeds India/World.
  • Market Potential.

3. Analysis of information’s collected.

4. Assessment of different existing technology adopted in India/World wide.

5. Future prospects for better technology improvement keeping eye on economic stability.



There are two types of slaughterhouses operating in the country, organized and unorganized. There is also illegal slaughtering in many parts of India. The data on availability of raw material is mostly available from legal slaughtering taking place in the organized slaughterhouses. Large number of animal’s die in the villages, in some cases the villagers remove the skin but in many cases the carcass is left, as it is to decompose. Under this scenario the greatest limitation is to obtain an authentic data on the availability of raw materials in various parts of the country.

There are also many feed manufacturers in the unorganized sector manufacturing feeds without following standard protocols. There is no proper record of the total quantity of feeds being produced in this sector. This report is based on the data published by various government agencies from time to time and the interactions that was established with the experts in the field and the industries engaged in feed production.

The Government of India through its department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture, has prohibited the use of animal byproducts in ruminant feeds (Order No.2-4/99-AHT/FF dated 21st June, 1999). In any case, in India, there is no prevalent practice of feeding ruminant animals with the slaughterhouse byproducts. But for the poultry, fish and the pets like dogs and cats, these byproducts are the most essential ingredients.



Major Observations/Findings and Analysis

It has been observed during the course of study that the biggest hurdle that country faces is its inability to convert all the livestock by products into the products required by human and animal population. It is not the aim of this report to cover all the valuable products that can be produced from animal waste though there are many pharmaceutical products, which can yield good revenue. The present study focuses on utilization of slaughter waste for manufacturing animal feeds only. However, an integrated facility, in combination with the production of animal feeds and other consumer products will generate revenue more than the revenues recovered from the production of hide and skin.

st1622.jpg (40229 bytes)
Centribone Plant

There are certain constraints in the recovery of these products from animal waste. Most of the slaughterhouses by-product are decomposed if they are not stored under cold condition. In India the distance between the meat processing plants and the places where carcass is available is too long. Transport of raw materials from these places to the cities takes a long time leading to the putrefaction of the tissues. This is bound to affect the quality and the quantity of the final product prepared from this material.

It has also been observed that many small-scale entrepreneurs do not follow the standard scientific methodology for the production of animal feeds. Sterilization of final product is not carried out, required specifications of different diets are not maintained and in many cases they use raw material of inferior quality which may be dangerous to the health of animal.

There is an erroneous belief that the production of animal feed using slaughterhouse byproducts requires sophisticated equipments, highly trained manpower and huge capital. This has led to a paradoxical situation; those countries where the need for proteins and minerals is greatest, are the ones, which make least use of them. From the economic and sanitary point of view, it is essential to make use of the maximum raw materials present in each slaughtered animal, turning them into an extensive and valuable range of secondary products.


Recommendations and Action Plan

There is immediate need for establishing effective linkages between carcass utilization centers and the slaughterhouses having modern facilities to make optimum use of by-products as well as full capacity utilization of the rendering plants. Use of modern communication techniques like networking of these centers should be developed.
Installation of dry rendering technology and evaluation of the possibility of converting the same into continuous rendering should be promoted.

st1621.jpg (22602 bytes)
Sterilized Meat and Bone Meal

Plants using Centribone type of
Technology should be installed
/encouraged for effective and
efficient usage of animal
by-products for feed manufacturing.
These plants should be preferably
located next to integrated slaughter
houses and meat processing
complexes for manufacture of high
quality sterilized meat and bone
meal utilizing fresh chilled raw
materials derived from healthy livestock.

Quality of the ingredient and the sterility of the final product should be monitored and maintained closely.

Decomposed animals should not be used.

Collection and transportation of the raw material should be done scientifically as recommended.

Hygiene conditions should be maintained.

Use of refereed vans for the collection of raw materials and also establishment of the cold storage facilities at the carcass utilization centers need to be encouraged/promoted.

Systems to be developed, to recover maximum by products from the fallen but not decomposed animal and convert them into consumer products to increase the profitability.

Only trained manpower should be employed for higher productivity.