1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF AIR POLLUTION INSTRUMENTATION
With the growing pressures on the natural resources and rapid industrialization, various forms of environmental degradation are evident. The combined effect of discharges of pollutants from industries, automobiles, fuel combustion and urbanization have altered natural processes leading to air quality deterioration. As a result of this, the laws are being made more stringent and are now being implemented more effectively than in the past. Special emphasis is being laid on the technologies for pollution control equipment and instruments.
In India, the total instrumentation industry has progressed considerably during the last three decades. There are about 2000 identified and another 500 unidentified manufactures of a wide variety of instruments. The production f instruments during 198990 was over Rs.1000 crores including industrial electronics and air pollution control instrumentation. India is presently using the technologies developed in the early eighties when the overall impacts of pollution like the green house effects, ozone layer depletion, etc. were still not clearly understood.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
For assessing the extent of pollution, and assessing the efficacy of the control systems, instrumentation plays a very important role. Realizing the importance of this, Technology Information, Forecasting And Assessment Council (TIFAC), Dept. of Science and Technology decided to takeup a Technomarket Survey on Air Pollution Control Instrumentation with the following objectives :
a) To study the current status of air pollution control instruments and the level of technology at National and International levels.
b) Assessment of technology options available, their economic aspects and feasibilities leading to preferred options.
c) Suggested action plan and identification of agencies/groups/individuals for implementation of the same.
1.3 SCOPE OF WORK
1.3.1 In line with the requirements of TIFAC and the status of the industry, a comprehensive scope of work was formulated to cover the following areas:
- Air pollutants and their impacts.
Air quality monitoring techniques and principles.
The current status of the technology in the world and the country.
Assessment of the technology gaps and technology options available to India.
The economic aspects of the technologies alongwith their feasibilities leading to the preferred options.
Impact of the preferred option by itself, its linkage to the broad area of technology and spinoffs.
Suggested action plan and identification of the agencies involved.
1.3.2 Typed of Air Pollutants Covered in the Study
Primary Air Pollutants
Primary air pollutants are emitted directly from identifiable sources. Examples for primary air pollutants are Particulates (fine and coarse), Inorganic Pollutants, Sulphur gases, Oxides of carbon, Nitrogen gases, Haloges, Halides, Cyanides, Ammonium, Organic Pollutants, Radioactive compounds, finer aerosols, etc.