ES.3.0 Current Global Status
Inspite of severe environmental pressure the world market for pesticides has grown phenomenally from just US$ one billion in 1960 to about US$ 26 billion in 1990. Western Europe and USA are the world leaders with shares of about 30.2% and 22.7%. There is a boom in the global pesticide market and new insecticides, herbicides and fungicides and their formulations are being introduced with greater level of activity, however, with conscious efforts for minimizing the hazards to the human beings and the environment.
ES.4.0 Current Status in India
Indian pesticide industry has also made a remarkable progress having achieved the status of second longest basic pesticide manufacturer I Asia after Japan. Further encouraging developments in the recent years include almost total self reliance with imports constituting less than 5% of total consumption of about 70,000 tonnes annum, indigenous development of several new products and processes, and penetration into overseas markets with exports already having touched a level of about Rs. 150 crores. However, there is still a long way to go considering that the per capita consumption of pesticides in India is just 475 gms per hectare as compared to 11800 gms per hectare in Japan and 3000 gms per hectare in USA.
ES.5.0 International trends in the development of new pesticides
(a) Responding to the economic, social and environmental requirements, there have been rapid developments in pesticide products and technologies. Starting from Dithiocarbamates in 1930, and DDT in 1942, the world has come through the stages of organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, and later into still new discoveries. Some of the pesticide products/technologies representing the current trends are:
|a)||Insecticides||Propesticides, New Synthetic pyrethroids, Chitin inhibitors, Natural base pesticides, Pheromones Metomorphosis, disruptors (Juvenile and moulting hormonemimics etc.)|
|b)||Herbicides||Sulphonylureas, Glyphosate, ethiozin, fusillade; bioherbicides.|
(b) In the field of Public health, the new developments include the use of synthetic pyrethroids, primiphos methyl etc. WHO .has recommended the use of bed nets soaked with permethrin.
ES.6.0 Current developments in the field of pesticides in India
There have been commendable efforts by the Government Research Laboratories, pesticides industry, and several other agencies in the field of R & D, studies for bio efficacy, toxicology, environmental impact as well as technology commercialization.
Though the bulk volume pesticide like BHC and DDT still constitute a bulk of the pesticides consumed, India is moving gradually into the production and use of high performance low volume products. The notable recent entrants are synthetic pyrethorids. Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate, Acephate, Anilophos, Glyphosate etc.
The R & D activities of the Research Laboratories and the pesticide manufacturers are yielding good results. Processes have been developed for several important products including Monocrotophos, Neem Extracts,. Butachlor, Anilphos, Edifenphos, pheromones etc. Furture R & D perspectives relate to process development for chlorphriphos, Flucythrinate, Alphamethrin chlorosulfuron, Thiophernate etc. Back