ES.7.0 Current trends in formulation technology
An extensive work is being carried out world wide, for developing new formulation technologies which would serve the objectives of easier applications, labour saving, improved safety, reduced toxicity, minimization of environmental pollution, higher efficacy and reduced cost. The areas of development include suspension concentrates, Micromulsions, granules, microgranules, water dispersible granules, concentrated emulsions; etc. slow controlled release products etc.
ES.8.0 Enviromental Considerations
There has been a considerable concern and debate on the possible adverse effects of pesticides on life and environment due to toxicity, residues, carcinogenicity, contamination of soil, water and air etc.
In response to this concern, the development in pesticide is directed towards discovering new products with lower toxicity and ecological impact, as well as reduced dosages and employing processes which are less hazardous. An interesting example would be the decreasing oral LD-50 toxicity in the successive generations of insecticides DDT (Organochlorine)-118mg/g; Fenitrothion (organophosphate) – 570 mg/g; Permethrin (Pyrethriod) – 1500 mg/kg; chlorfruaron (insecticide growth regulator) – 8500 mg/g.
ES.9.0 Techno- Economic Considerations
Quantitatively, the demand of Pesticides is estimated to grow to about 1,08,000 tonnes by 1994-95 and 1,18,000 tonnes by the year 2000 A.D. qualitatively, the demand of high performance and environmentally acceptable products will increase.
The overall cost-benefit consideration including environmental factors, warrant that though the use of conventional and cheaper pesticides may be continued for some time, the new and advanced pesticides are bound to prove more beneficial in the longer perspective.
The development and manufacture of new pesticides is also important not only for reducing the dependence on continued imports and the foreign exchange outgo but also for boosting the exports, the potential of which has already been well established.
Though there are several constraints in discovering new products, it is well within our capabilities to develop new processes for the internationally proven and well established products with improved characteristics including low toxicity, high specificity and suitability to Indian conditions.
Pesticides industry is quite favourably placed with respect to the availability of Raw Material. However there are constraints regarding some intermediates for newer pesticides.
ES.10.0 Identification of Preferred products/technology groups for futuristic pesticides
Based on considerations in the proceeding chapters, a broad identification of some products/ technology groups has been made.
These include propesticides, Natural base pesticides, chitin inhibitors, pheromones, Metamorphosis disruptors sulphonyl ureas, Dinitroanillines, Triazoles etc.
ES.11.0 Suggestions on action plan and identification of agencies of the same
Suggestions include encouragement of direct foreign investment for establishing capacities for advanced technology high performance pesticides, consolidation of Research and Development activities for Process Development relating to certain selected products, and restructuring of supporting infrastructure for studies relating to bio-efficacy, toxicology etc. with a centralized data base.
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