Techno-Market Survey on Flyash Bricks

Recommendations & Action Plan

The fly ash generators in India have not yet adequately recognized that bottom ash and fly ash as two distinctly different resource materials.
Once this is realized, bottom ash and fly ashes collected from different locations would not be indiscriminately mixed together but would be suitably collected in a manner as not to destroy their special features.
Dry collection systems may be designed and implemented for identified storage in silos.
The wet disposal systems should be discourage, also on account of the threat to underground water resources through percolation of soluble cations of alkali metals and those containing traces of arsenic, fluorine, molybdenum, selenium, mercury etc.
For similar reasons, fly ash should not be discharged into rivers or lakes.
For generators, environmental clearances should be granted only to projects which integrate highest standards of collection and storage of fly ash.
Rigid guidelines be issued to existing projects to adhere to stringent regime for emission control and collection and storage of dry fly ash within a specific time frame. Suitable penal clauses should be imposed and be implemented effectively in case of non-compliance.
Agencies :

  • Ministry of Environment
  • Ministry of Power
  • Project appraising authorities, financial institutions
  • NTPC
  • CEA
  • SEBs


Quality of available fly ash can be improved by taking suitable measures.
This is important to improve the value-added potential of fly ash, and its acceptability by the manufacturing sector, for making high quality bricks and blocks using fly ash.
This has considerable overlap with the above recommendation.
Greater pulverizing of coal and using 20-25% higher air in combustion, apart from better collection, transportation and storage practices can result in improved fly ash quality.
However, these factors may affect boiler operation. The whole process needs to be optimized, and standardized guidelines issued to that effect.
Agencies :

  • Ministry of Environment
  • Ministry of Power
  • Project appraising authorities, financial institutions
  • NTPC
  • CEA
  • SEBs.


While technologies and processes are being developed in a number of privae and governmental institutions in India, the potential of using fly ash and the technologies seem to have by-passed the average entrepreneur for manufacture of fly ash bricks and blocks, and also the potential users of these building components.

There is an urgent need for dissemination of information about these products and technologies, and educating the entrepreneurs and users. Extensive applications will also help to improve the technologies and make them more commercially relevant. A few large scale demonstration projects using fly ash components need to be effected across the country. A concerted effort needs to be made in this direction to obtain funding from industry / SEBs. Making technologies commercial will also generate funds for further research and development.

The process of selection, extension and promotion of proven fly ash building components and technologies conforming to Indian Standards and Building Codes needs to be strengthened to help the user / entrepreneur.
BMTPC currently gives extension and education for a variety of building materials. It needs to focus more sharply on fly ash components along with central and state government departments.

Further, it could help in giving guidance on financial and other assistance to entrepreneurs for the manufacture and marketing of appropriate and innovative materials.

Agencies :

  • Ministry of Power
  • BMTPC
  • NTPC
  • SEBs
  • Research institutions like CBRI, CFRI and NRDC, various CSIR labs, etc.
  • HUDCO, NBO, private builders, architects and town planners
  • Academic institutions like IITs, engineering colleges, schools of architecture etc.
  • Ministry of Urban Development
  • State Governments / PWDs / Housing Boards.                                                                                     Back