Code No:TMS158Price:Rs2000/-Category:Environment: Recovery
Summary : The report highlights the present status of technologies for producing nicotine sulphate, the shortcomings in the technology developed by NCL, alternative technology developed by CTRI and the business opportunities in producing nicotine sulphate. The report traces the history of tobacco and it\'s introduction in India. It gives production figures of tobacco in the world and in our country- state wise and variety wise. Harvesting, curing and post harvesting practices of tobacco are detailed in the report. The report also lists the different chemical constituents of tobacco. The various uses /applications of nicotine are given which include pesticide in the form of nicotine sulphate, smoking cessation products etc. Though the usage of nicotine sulphate is banned in India but it has got good export potential. The report has not quantified the markets for the different products neither in volumes nor in value.
Year of Publication : 2001
Table Of Contents : Introduction; The World of Tobacco- History of Tobacco, History of Tobacco in India, Introduction of VFC tobacco in India, Institutions for Tobacco Development and Regulation, Production of Tobacco, Tobacco varieties grown in India, Harvesting and Curing practices, Grades of Tobacco from India, Tobacco Prices, Nicotine content of Tobacco, World Consumption of Tobacco; Tobacco Utilization Pattern; Tobacco Post Harvest Practices- Virginia Tobacco, Machanized Bulk Curing, Chewing and Hookah Tobacco, Cigar Cheroot and beedi Tobacco; Tobacco Waste : Sources, availability and Utilization- Sources, Availability of Tobacco Waste, Present Utilization of Tobacco Waste; Chemical Constituents of Tobacco- Aroma constituents produced by carotenoid degradation during curing, Nicotine Alkaloids of Tobacco, Nicotine content of Indian Tobacco, Other commercially potential chemicals present in Tobacco; Tobacco Products and Alternate use of Tobacco- Role of Tobacco products in the economy, Tobacco Leaf Protein, Tobacco Seed Oil ; Products from Tobacco and / or Tobacco Waste- The Delhi declaration of WHO international Conference, Tobacco Products, Major Production Centers, Tobacco waste and dust generated during manufacture of Tobacco products, Products from Tobacco waste, Solanesol, Other Tobacco waste based products; Nicotine and its commercially important derivatives- Nicotine Sulphate, Smoking Cessation Products, Medicinal use of Nicotine derivatives; World Pesticide Market and prospects for Nicotine Sulphate- World pesticide Market Scenario, The Indian Scenario of Pesticides, World Pesticide Markets, Pesticides in current use Insecticides in current use, Insecticides in current use, Nicotine Sulphate: Problems and Prospects, Use of Nicotine Sulphate as insecticides: farmers Opinions; Status of tobacco based industries in India- technical know-how, Case study of Kraun Fine Chemicals Limited, Chikodi, Belgaum (Closed Unit), Case study of Nicosulf Industries and Exports Private Limited (Existing running unit), Export trend: Agrochemicals Versus Nicotine / Nicotine Sulphate / Nicotine derivatives; Overview of Technologies for Nicotine based Products- Technology for Nicotine Sulphate from NCL Pune, Technology developed by the Central tobacco research Institute Rajahmundry, Technology from China, Phytochemicals from Tobacco and Tobacco waste: Integrated approach, Patents on nicotine and its derivatives / Products; Need for Development of Alternate use for Tobacco: (Commercially important Application)- Need for development of alternate use for Tobacco, Commercially important Applications – Smoking Cessation Products, Commercially important Applications – pesticides, Pharmaceutical use of nicotine; Government Policy Support- Policy statement of World Health Organization, Short term Policy measures, Long term Policy measures; Commercial Aspects of Nicotine Sulphate and Nicotine Derivatives- Raw material Costs, Project Cost, Market Price of Nicotine and its Salts, Value added Products from Nicotine; Conclusions and Recommendations- Conclusions, Recommendations
Tobacco is grown with assistance of man with the leaf as the most valuable part of the plant. Almost all continents are capable of growing tobacco but the United States, China, India and Brazil are the leading countries to grow tobacco.
The tobacco leaf is used in many forms today. Tobacco swept across Europe after Columbus discovered the natives in the late 1400’s. In any case it is the nicotine content in the leaves, which attracted man to the tobacco plant.
Tobacco is primarily used for cigarette, Cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. Other products from tobacco include Beedi and Hookah and are typically Indian products with 90% of production coming from India.
Growing apathy towards smoking and other forms of consumption of tobacco for health reasons has become a great impediment for the sustained developmental progress of tobacco in trade and agriculture. The use of tobacco can be detrimental to the user. It is very hard to stop using tobacco after the user has been using tobacco in whatever form. The money profited from the manufacture of tobacco is significant.
This report generally deals with one of the most important constituent of Tobacco – Nicotine and products there off. It also covers other products possible from Tobacco to some extent.
The report starts with a general review of the tobacco crop to give the reader an opportunity to understand the crop, its distribution, processing, generation of wastes during processing, Tobacco constituents, harmful effects of Tobacco ingredients, fight against Tobacco throughout the world and efforts of the tobacco product companies exploit the addictive nature of nicotine. The report provides list of Patents, publications, individuals and organizations connected with Tobacco and alternate tobacco products, in particular Nicotine.
The data and Literature used in this report are obtained mainly through key word search of the internet, Data gathered through a field survey and the literature provided by the Scientists and Industrialists connected with the field of study, mainly the Director and Scientists of Central Tobacco Research institute, Directorate of Tobacco Development (Dr. S. Kori), Nicosulf Industries and Exports private Limited, in India and Dr. G. Dakshinamurty, DM (Neurology), Virginia University Hospital, USA (Formerly with NIMAHANS, Bangalore)
Most of the units started with the technology from NCL, Pune are suffering due to technical problems and majority of them have been closed and as such most of them were able to provide data required. Similarly the raw material suppliers mainly the Tobacco Traders are in the absence of buyers and good price are not in a position to provide adequate data on Raw material. However it was possible to gather adequate published information required for the purpose of the study.
History of Tobacco
The origin and history of tobacco suffers generally from ambiguity and contradictions. There are three versions about the origin of tobacco. Columbus’s crew introduced tobacco growing and use to Spain. Jean Nicot, the French Ambassador in Portugal, first introduced the tobacco in French court. The different ways of using tobacco also originated from America. Cigarette, Beedi, Snuff, Cigars and Pipes remained the popular means of using tobacco. Tobacco contains nicotine, an addictive drug.
Most of the work related to nicotine rich tobacco varieties could be attributed to Tobacco companies in the USA. The developmental work from 1960 to 1994 aimed ultimately at increasing the sale of Tobacco products. Before the recent revelations (1960) that the presence of nicotine in tobacco products make them addictive and is the reason why many people continue to use them despite the evidence of the harmful effect of tobacco use, nicotine generally was perceived to be merely a natural part of the tobacco leaf and inevitable component of any tobacco product. The Tobacco companies started on working for developing a more addictive a new nicotine rich, harder to kick tobacco and finally developed a genetically altered variety with the code name Y-1.
The history of development of nicotine rich tobacco varieties of today in the world thus can be attributed to British American Tobacco (BAT) industries. BAT also did research on harmful effects of Tobacco.
History of Tobacco in India : In 1906 the first cigarette factory of the Peninsular tobacco Company (later known as Imperial Tobacco Company and now known as ITC Limited) was established in Monghyr (Bihar). The history of ILTD, the research subsidiary of ITC can be said to be the history of cigarette tobacco in India. By 1928 ILTD obtained definite results and considerable expansion of area under Virginia Tobacco took place. This in fact revolutionized the Virginia tobacco cultivation in the country and placed India on the World Tobacco Map. However the average yield of VFC Tobacco in India is 973 Kg/ha, one of the lowest in the world. Indian Central Tobacco Committee (Later the Developmental Functions of ICTC were Transferred to Directorate of Tobacco Development and CTRI was Transferred to ICAR) was set up by the government in 1945 to oversee the activity of Agriculture Research, Tobacco processing technology development and Market development activities.
At present tobacco is facing an anti-smoking campaign situation through out the world. Still tobacco, in almost all the important producing countries including India is the most remunerative crop tot he farmers. Most of the current development is aimed at utilizing he tobacco waste generated at farm level and during processing of tobacco.
World Production of Tobacco: The world production of tobacco increased from 5.61 million tones in 1994 to 7.72 million tones in 1997 registering a compound annual growth rate of 11.24% during the period.
Nearly 62% of the Tobacco produced in the world is Virgina Tobacco. The world average yield of Tobacco for all varieties is around 1.5 Tones per hectare. The productivity for Virginia tobacco is higher at about 1.70 Tones per hectare.
Production of Tobacco in India: There has been considerable fluctuation in the production of Tobacco during the last two decades, even thought the area under the crop showed only slight fluctuation as per data of Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India. Endowed with various agro-climatic zones, India grows all types of tobacco (except oriental), which are broadly classified as flue cured Virginia (cigarette tobacco) and non-Virginia types. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka between them account for 82.4% of the area under tobacco crop.
The production of tobacco in the country has been stagnant at around 6 lakh tones during the last two decades. Kheda District in Gujarat tops in terms of area under tobacco as well as production of tobacco in the country.
Tobacco Utilization Pattern:
Globally Tobacco is used for the manufacture of Cigarette, Cigars and Pipe Tobacco, which is smoked; Snuff, which is inhaled in tot he nose; and Chewing tobacco, which is chewed but not swallowed. The utilization of each variety of Tobacco is restricted for the purpose it is grown. Cigarette and Beedi are the two major products for which tobacco is used in India. Of the 0.5876 million tones (1999) of tobacco currently produced in the country 0.1013 million tones of tobacco is currently exported and the rest is consumed within the country or held as stocks. Data on tobacco cleared for home consumption are available precisely only up to 1978-89, because of the excise duty levied on tobacco meant for home consumption. during 1978-79 excise duty on un-manufactured tobacco was abolished. However, it is estimated that nearly 0.350 million tones of tobacco is consumed within the country annually. Export is limited to mostly Virginia type and to a small extent burley tobacco. Home consumption of Virginia tobacco as well as Beedi tobacco is increasing steadily in recent years. In the case of cigar tobacco there is no increase in consumption, and in the case of hookah and chewing tobacco the increase is only marginal. During 1977 Dr. Walunjkar reported in a seminar on Indian Tobacco Exports, held at Hyderabad (Jan-Feb 1977) the variety wise production of Tobacco in India and made suggestions for planning tobacco production in India keeping in view of the importing countries mainly EEC. Type wise Estimates of area and production of Tobacco in India have been published up to 1992-93 by Dr. Kori S, S N Panikar and M Raghunath in Tobacco Development Journal. Type wise Estimated of production of Tobacco in India during 1998-99 based on CARG between 72-93 is as follows:
|Type of Tobacco||Virginia||Natu||Beedi||Cigar||Hookah||Chewing||Snuff||Total|
Tobacco Post Harvest Practices
Tobacco plants require fertile well-drained moist soil and warm temperatures. Most types of tobacco are grown in full sun. To counteract these problems, tobacco farmers grow strains of tobacco that resist diseases and insects. By rotating crops (planting tobacco one year and different crop in the same field next year) farmers keep the population of tobacco pests in check by depriving them of tobacco plants on alternate years.
Harvesting : The right stage for harvesting tobacco crop is when the leaves are mature. Basis of maturity varies with the type of tobacco and the method of harvest.
Priming : In tobacco, generally lower leaves mature first and then the upper leaves in regular ascending order. Cigarette tobacco, cigar wrapper tobacco and hookah tobacco is harvested by priming. Harvesting of Beedi tobacco is done at considerable advanced stage of maturity.
Curing : Virginia tobacco is mostly flue cured. The cigar wrapper tobacco grown in West Bengal and Burley, Lanka tobacco in Andhra Pradesh are air cured in India. The Burley tobacco harvesting and curing are similar but curing is in sheds open on all sides.
Some varieties of chewing tobacco grown in Dindigul and Coimbatore districts in Tamil Nadu are smoke cured. In India, a number of tobaccos such as cigar tobacco, Chewing Tobacco, Natu Tobacco, Hookah Tobacco, and Beedi Tobacco are Sun cured.
Grading : The Tobacco Board has introduced a simple system of farm grades for VFC tobacco. The Tobacco Board has also formulated a plant position grade specification for VFC Tobacco for adoption by the farmers. It is obligatory on the part of growers to grade their VFC tobacco as per these standard grades notified by the tobacco Board for sale in the auction platforms of the Tobacco Board.
Beedi tobacco, the main type among the non-Virginia tobacco is valued on the basis of its physical characteristics like colour, thickness, size, spangling of the leaf etc. and also it’s smoking and burning qualities. Bulk of the produce (Beedi Tobacco) in Gujarat is sold by the farmers in the broken leaf farm as Bhuka.
The Tobacco Board regulates marketing of Virginia tobacco. The board also fixes the authorized crop size for major tobacco growing states.
The export of Tobacco increased from 74,982 tones in 1974-75 to 136,739 tones in 1997-98. Among the unmanufactured tobacco exports VFC tobacco formed the bulk of the exports and had share of 60% - 75% in terms of quantity and 75% - 90% in terms of value (1995-96). The average price realized for VFC tobacco was around 55.14 per kg and for other varieties Rs.35.88 per kg (1995-96).
Nicotine Content of Tobacco : Nicotine content is an important factor, which determines the quality of Tobacco from the point of view of the marketability of tobacco products since Nicotine is believed to be addictive in nature. Nicotine content is highest in Beedi Tobacco (6.5% - 8.25%).
Production Process: This conditioning process helps to make the tobacco easier to handle while reducing breakage. Here, off-coloured leaves, foreign materials and damaged tobacco are removed from the batch. The tobacco then goes through the aging process, averaging about 18 months, depending on customer requirements.
Tobacco Sheet Manufacturing : An important component in the cigarette manufacturing process is the use of reconstituted tobacco, largely consisting of tobacco stems, scrap leaf, and small tobacco particles. Reconstituted tobacco is produced via tobacco sheet manufacturing plants, either by band cast process or paper process: The paper process for making reconstituted tobacco closely resembles the paper making process for newspaper.
Getting Tobacco into Proper Order : The rapid and satisfactory ordering (conditioning) of flue-cured tobacco after curing is essential to both the efficient use of barn space and leaf quality. Proper ordering involves adding moisture to the tobacco in a controlled and consistent manner throughout the barn. Very little moisture migration occurs in sheeted or baled tobacco. The absorption of water by cured tobacco leaves is a complex process that depends on many biological and physical factors. Lower-stalk or thin, poor-quality tobacco has a more rapid absorption rate than thicker, upper-stalk tobacco. At the end of the curing cycle, the moisture content of the tobacco is essentially zero.
Protecting Carry-Over Tobacco: Tobacco stored in the form of bales is no more likely to suffer decay or insects than tobacco in sheets. The best way to prevent mold is to keep the tobacco dry. Unfortunately, there is now no practical method to determine the exact moisture content of tobacco. Most tobacco will shatter at moisture content below 11 per cent, and tobacco above 17 per cent will feel limp and sticky. A sheet of plastic may be placed under the tobacco and another draped loosely over the tobacco, but it is not a good idea to surround the tobacco like this because excess moisture cannot escape. Abrupt changes in temperature and humidity may cause condensation to form, possibly resulting in decayed tobacco.
Tobacco Waste: Sources, Availability and Utilization
Sources : Tobacco Waste or dust is generated at various stages of post harvest processing of tobacco and also while manufacturing various tobacco products mainly during manufacture of tobacco products like cigarette and Beedi. The types of wastes generated during pre and post harvest practice of tobacco include suckers, stems, mid ribs, leaf waste and dust. Most cigarette factories are recycling the waste to produce reconstituted tobacco sheet and for blending and for the production of cheap tobacco products. As such Waste or dust of VFC tobacco from Cigarette factories are generally not available.
Availability of Tobacco Waste: Patel and Ramakrishnayya surveyed the tobacco wastes suitable for nicotine extraction, available in the country during 1975. According to their data an average of 45 million kg of tobacco waste is available annually. According to Patel and Ramakirshnayya in general 11% of total production of tobacco results in Waste.
CV Narasimha Rao and M K Chakraborty reported during 1978, data on commercially available Tobacco waste. Their estimate is based on the production of Flue cured tobacco and natu tobacco in Andhra Pradesh and Beedi tobacco in Gujarat during 1972. According to them 12,720 tones of flue cured tobacco waste, 6,690 tones of natu tobacco waste and 11,640 tones of Beedi tobacco waste was available during 1972. Tobacco waste generated in Cigarette factories is generally recycled for reconstituted tobacco sheet manufacture and hence not available for any other use.
Tobacco merchants generally procure the waste from the available sources whenever there is demand. The quantity of Tobacco waste available if organized efforts are made to collect the waste from all economical sources will be on an average 16% of the Tobacco Production as published. This estimate however does not include the stalks and suckers left in the field, in the case of tobacco were only leaf is harvested like in the case of virginia tobacco. The published tobacco production figures indicate only the marketable cured / dried and packed Tobacco leaves.
Present Utilization of Tobacco Waste: Part of the waste produced within the cigarette factories and other leaf wastes are utilized by the cigarette manufacturers for the manufacture of reconstituted tobacco in the form of tobacco sheet. Tobacco waste is also exported manly to USA to some extent.
The Tobacco dust consumed at present based on the sample data would be 25,000 tones per year for production of 600 tones per year of Nicotine Sulphate based on average 2% nicotine content in tobacco Taste.
Chemical Constituents of Tobacco
Due to health and social concerns, tobacco has been the most thoroughly researched natural product in history. Millions of dollars have been expended in the study of tobacco constituent composition. Over 2700 compounds have been identified in various tobacco varieties (Virginia Burley and Oriental) and it is estimated that in excess of 6000 may be in tobacco smoke.
Nicotine alkaloids of Tobacco: The species most often used for the production of tobacco because of its high level of nicotine is N. tabacum, which is cultivated for the preparation of cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco.
Structures of nicotine and some other alkaloids found in tobacco
Structures of nicotine and some other alkaloids found in tobacco
(S)- Nicotine (C10H14N2) is readily extracted from tobacco roots and stalks that remain after the leaves have been picked for tobacco production and from waste tobacco. It is optically pure when obtained from the tobacco plant, specific rotation (a )25D= -1690 (pure liquid). Nicotine has a bitter taste and a sharp odour.
Nicotine content in Indian tobacco: Various authors have reported levels of nicotine present in tobacco as part of their work on developing technology for nicotine extraction. CV Narasimha Rao and M K Chakraborty have reported, nicotine content in various types of tobacco grwon in India. SR Prabhu, MS Chari and DG Kumar have categorized various tobacco wastes as High Nicotine type, Medium nicotine type and low nicotine type, whch they used for conducting bulk trails on nicotine recovery. KSN Murty, JAV Pasad Rao, SS Prasad, , M. Sannibabu and AVSR Swamy have reported the nicotine content of FCV tobacco leaf samples collected from P, X, L and T positions for tobacco grown in northern light soils of Andhra Pradesh and also studied the effect of soil micro nutrient (Zn treatment) application on Nicotine content. The results show that the micro nutrient soil treatment did not have much effect on the nicotine content of tobacco.
During the current study the traders were asked to provide analysis report of tobacco / tobacco waste, in particular the nicotine content. The nicotine content varied between 2.8% to 6.5% for Beedi tobacco waste and 1.2% t0 2.7% for other tobacco wastes.
Other commercially potential chemicals from Tobacco: CV Narasimha Rao and MK Chakraborty have analyzed different types of tobacco waste available in the country for Solanesol, Nicotine and Organic acid and reported their results in tobacco Research Journal during 1978. According to MS Chari India can produce annually apart from 2000 tones of Nicotine Sulphate, 1600 tones of Solanesol, and 1800 tones of organic acids.
According to BK Patel and R. Laxminarayana, who have considered the surplus availability of tobacco for alternate use, the annual production potential of Nicotine is 2000 – 2500 tones, Organic acids: 4000 – 4500 tones and Solanesol: 150-200 tones. Chakraborty and others have also studied the presence of these chemicals including Nicotine in different parts of tobacco plant. Each part of tobacco plant is a useful raw material either for nicotine or organic acid or Solanesol.
Tobacco Products and Alternate Use of Tobacco
Role of Tobacco products in the economy: Tobacco and tobacco products contributes over Rs.600 million to the export earnings and over Rs.30,000 million to the excise revenue of the country. Tobacco sector employs over 7.5 million people in farming, curing, marketing, grading, re-drying, packing, manufacturing, exports and retail trade. During 1998-99 the country exported 101,323 tones of tobacco and tobacco products valued Rs.8062 million. Out of these 82,366 tones of tobacco valued at Rs.6345 million is exported in un-manufactured form and 18,957 tones of tobacco worth Rs.1717 million in the form of various tobacco products. The unit value realized is about Rs.0.77 lakh per ton in case of tobacco and Rs.0.91 lakh in the case of tobacco products. India’s export of tobacco products increased from 12,337 tones in 1981 to 18,957 tones in 1998-99. The short fall in revenue is made good by increasing rates of excise duty on manufactured tobacco products and bringing all tobacco products under tariff structure. Central Excise duty on tobacco products increased every year as a measure to control the use of tobacco products. The current Excise revenue from tobacco products in India is estimated at Rs.75,000 million a year.
It is because of these reasons and the difficulty in finding suitable alternate crop to tobacco the governments are hesitant to impose total ban on tobacco use in spite of known health risks from the use of tobacco and the related expenditure. According to a study the cost of treating each cancer patient is Rs.3.5 lakhs. The total cost of all tobacco related cancers would then be astronomical. The study has given a boost of the campaign against tobacco, since the health costs of tobacco are much more than the gains from its cultivation.
Tobacco made four million preventable deaths annually. In India alone 7 lakh people die due to tobacco related diseases every year. There is a continued effort to control the usage of Tobacco globally. In the absence of suitable alternatives for tobacco crop farmers are not likely to discontinue cultivation of tobacco in spite of health risks associated with it. In such a situation alternative use for tobacco could help to control the supply side of tobacco for the manufacture of smoking and chewing products. Even if the present usage of tobacco for smoking or in other forms are to continue alternate routs of tobacco usage will help in controlling the supply side for such use.
The products developed so far include Tobacco leaf proteins, Tobacco seed oil, Phytochemicals, Pharmaceutical products based on Nicotine, Chemicals for Fragrance and Flavour industry and Conversion of residue as potash rich manure.
Increasing the cost of the tobacco products has done demand side control of tobacco usage to some extent. In countries like India excise duty and sales tax component of tobacco products in some cases are as high as 60%. However, the alternate use of tobacco will help the farmer as well as in controlling the tobacco use in the present form.
Protein From Tobacco: Among the protein extracts that were prepared from a variety of green plants and forage crops, those originating from the leaves of the tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, according to Wildman, a leading protein chemist, had "properties which make them uniquely desirable as sources of edible leaf protein". Tobacco was the only plant from which the Fraction-1-protein (F-1-p-a single, large, homogenous protein that makes up half of the plant’s soluble protein) could be obtained in pure, crystalline form. All in all, tobacco F-1-p may be the best nutritional and functional food protein. Gown for food, tobacco plants could be more densely spaced and generate about four times as much protein per acre as soyabeans or corn and about five times as much smoking material as conventional tobacco crops. According to a US study the total yield value could exceed $6,000 per acre as compared to $2,500 per acre for conventional tobacco.
Protein yield and Quality from Beedi Tobacco was comparable with normal diet at 25% level of protein supplement according to Indian Scientist. National Institute of Nutrition has found Tobacco Leaf protein as safe protein food supplement.
Tobacco seed oil: For producing good quality smoking / Chewing leaf, tobacco plant is topped resulting in no commercial supply of seeds. Tobacco seed is rich in oil. It is reported that Tobacco seed oil is comparable to other edible oils and is free from Nicotine. If tobacco is grown for oil seed production with untopped close-planted crop, then the stalk and leaf after collection of seed could be used for the extraction of Phyto chemicals.
Products from Tobacco and Tobacco Wastes:
The trends of tobacco use in developed countries are different from those in developing countries; developed nations are witnessing a steady decline in tobacco consumption. Developing countries, on the other hand, are experiencing rising tobacco consumption and shrinking export markets. The countries that have not planned for reduction in demand for tobacco products would face additional problems. It is reported that higher tobacco duty on tobacco in the gulf nations to help curb or reduce the use of tobacco with out a plan to help the smoker has only lead to smuggling of tobacco products.
In spite of all efforts and talks against tobacco use tobacco consumption is increasing in one form or the other. New tobacco products with new marketing strategy are introduced to lure the customer.
Major Production Centers: There are 17 Cigarette factories producing more than 100 brands. Their activity is spread throughout the country. Beedi Industry is mostly concentrated in the Southern States, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. India contributes nearly 80% to the total World Production of Beedi. Cigar and Cheroot are made from uncut tobacco. Abut 8000 tones of tobacco are used annually for Cigars and 2000 tones for Cheroot manufacture in India. Hookah tobacco production and consumption is mainly in Northern India. Hookah tobacco manufactured in Uttar Pradesh is reputed for its quality. A separate tobacco variety used extensively for chewing is grown in Tamil Nadu, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Parts of Kerala. In other states, tobacco used for hookah is used for chewing also. Annual consumption of raw tobacco by the chewing tobacco industry is around 50,000 tones. Major Production centers of chewing tobacco are: UP, Bihar and Tamil Nadu. The use of Snuff is not as widespread as of other tobacco products. Snuff is mainly produced in TN and West Bengal. About 5000 tones of tobacco is used for the manufacture of Snuff.
Waste and dust generated during manufacture of various tobacco products. Cigarette Factories normally recycle the waste for manufacture of reconstituted tobacco sheet. Thus, the waste available for disposal is minimum and around 2-6% of the total tobacco handled. The Nicotine content generally varies between 1.8% to 2.8%. In the case of Beedi manufacture most manufacturers buy ready to use blended Tobacco flakes. The quantity of Waste generated varies from 12% - 16% of the tobacco handled excluding Stalk. The quality is generally good from the point of view of nicotine content. The nicotine content varies from less 1% (Deshi Stem waste) to as high as 7% (Rustica Scrap). Waste generated during the manufacture of chewing tobacco, Hookah tobacco and Snuff is between 12% - 15% of tobacco handled.
Nicotine / Nicotine derivatives from tobacco:
Nicotine derived from tobacco species, is one of the most toxic substances sold for use in the garden. However, for any gardener Nicotine Sulphate must be a weapon of last resort. Nicotine Sulphate biodegrades rapidly and has residual effect.
Nicotine is more effective when applied during warm weather. Nicotine Sulphate is manufactured by at least 5 Indian Firms. Nicotine is being increasingly used as an aid to smoking cessation and has been found to be safe and efficacious treatment for the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.
As with nicotine, tobacco is probably the only measurable source of Solanesol. Central Tobacco Research Institute has studied the methods for efficient extraction of Solanesol from tobacco Waste. Tobacco extracts in various forms are used in the manufacture of cosmetic and toiletry products, like toothpaste, Deodorant (Sclareol).
Nicotine and its Commercially Important Derivatives:
Nicotine is the addictive ingredient in tobacco products that keeps many users hooked, but during the past several years, many researchers have worked to develop nicotine analogs, and to focus on the beneficial impact they have on Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Chronic pain, Obesity, and Depression. Scientists have been studying the medicinal chemistry of nicotine and nicotine analogs since the early 1980s. Scientists have investigated the pharmacological actions of several nicotine metabolites and nicotine analogs on the brain.
Among the Nicotine based products, globally only Nicotine Sulphate 40% aqueous solution and small quantity of Nicotine salts and Nicotine alkaloids are manufactured in India.
During the last decade, nicotine has been used increasingly as an aid to smoking cessation. Nicotine in the form of its salts and derivatives are used in various pharmaceutical applications.
Smoking Cessation Products: One of the major researches going on globally is connected with Nicotine as a major inducer of tobacco dependence. Since the success rate achieved is very low attempt are now on to try the combination of Nicotine replacement products. Till such time successful products are developed research will continue and demand for nicotine will also improve. Nicotine gum: Nicotine gum comes in two strengths, 2 mg and 4 mg, and is referred to by total nicotine in the gum. The plasma nicotine concentration rarely exceeds 10ng/mL for the 2 mg strength and 15ng/mL for the 4 mg strength. The nicotine gum is popular in the U.S.A, Western Europe and China. Nicotine Paches: Nicotine Patches are convenient and one of the easiest smoking cessation technique to use, one application a day, but very inflexible in terms of self-titration and self control. All the patches deliver approximately 0.9 mg nicotine per hour. Nicotine levels tend to fall from late afternoon onward with all patches. The most frequently reported side effects when using nicotine patch is local skin reaction. Since sleep disturbance is a symptom of nicotine withdrawal, additional delivery of nicotine at night more that over comes the withdrawal effect. Nicotine Nasal Spray: Nicotine nasal spray is a faster, essentially ad lib preparation with flexible dosing to meet individual and situational needs. One dose delivers 1 mg nicotine, 0.5 mg to each nostril. The spray is the fastest of the nicotine replacement therapy [NRT] preparations. Nicotine Nasal spray is a new addition tot he nicotine replacement line up. Like nicotine gum and the nicotine patch, the nasal spray reduces craving and withdrawal symptoms, allowing smokers to cut back gradually. Patients should stop smoking completely before using Nicotrol NS, and should refrain from smoking or using other nicotine containing products during Nicotrol NS therapy. Nicotine Mouthpiece: [Aroma therapy inhalers] The nicotine mouthpiece, 90 mm long and 10 mm wide, contains a porous plug that is saturated with 10 mg nicotine plus 10% menthol to mask the nicotine taste and reduce irritation. The mouthpiece is a relatively week nicotine dosing system that requires the subject to work hard to obtain reinforcing nicotine levels. Approximately 4-5 mg of nicotine can be obtained from the plug. Nicorette inhaler [mouthpiece] is the latest addition to the range of products of nicotine replacement therapy [NRT] under the brand. Nicotine by itself does not cause cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. If nicotine preparations could be developed that were acceptable to smokers, there is the possibility of eliciting a substantial reduction in tobacco smoking. This also provides opportunity for manufacturer of nicotine to produce more pharmaceutical grades of nicotine.
Medicinal use of Nicotine derivatives: Parkinson’s disease: Nicotine in various forms is used for the treatment of the Parkinson’s disease. Although the neuropharmacological interest in nicotine and Parkinson’s disease is very new, nicotine was first tried clinically 70 years ago. Recently it was found that 3-6 mg nicotine hydrogen tartrate, equivalent to 1-2 mg nicotine dose reduced Parkinson origin tremor and better than atropine, adrenaline and N.A. Nicotine gum and nicotine patch also have been used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Alzheimer’s disease: Several clinical studies have been conducted on AD patients and Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type using i. V nicotine injections, nicotine gum and nicotine patches. Nicotine has been found to be beneficial in most cases. The demand for nicotine and nicotine derivatives for the treatment of AD patient will be limited to clinical trials at present.
The major areas of research on the therapeutic potential of Nicotine are: Nicotine therapy in Parkinson’s Diseases to prevent or ameliorate, Nicotine therapy in Alzheimer's Diseases, Periodontal Diseases and Nicotine, Nicotine in Neuro psychiatric movement disorders, Use of nicotine in controlling body weight.
World Pesticide Market and Prospects for Nicotine Sulphate
The World Pesticide market is worth $28 billion. Nicotine is effective against aphids, Capsids, leaf miners, Thrips on a wide ranges of crops, saw flies, and wooly aphid on apple. It is also used for fumigation of green houses. However at present 255 different types of chemicals are in use where Nicotine can be an effective pesticide.
Natural organic compounds and Pyrethroids: Nicotine is a non-persistent non-systemic, contact insecticide with some ovicidal properties. Nicotine is useful as a fumigant in closed spaces. Nicotine is prepared from tobacco by steam distillation or solvent extraction. However, Nicotine is harmful to bees, dangerous to fish, livestock, game, wild birds and animals. Following formulations of nicotine are available in the market: The 95% alkaloid, nicotine sulphate [40% alkaloid], and 3-5% dusts. For fumigation nicotine shreds are burnt, or the liquid nicotine is applied to a heated metal surface. Among the 126 popular pesticides used world over 108 chemicals in various categories are as effective as nicotine on Aphids, Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera. Nicotine derived from tobacco species, is one of the most toxic substances sold for use in the garden. However, for any gardener Nicotine sulphate must be a weapon of last resort. Nicotine sulphate biodegrades rapidly and has no residual effect. In India usage of Nicotine sulphate has been restricted under the pesticide act 1968. Till such time the safety precautions to be taken while using Nicotine are standardized market for Nicotine sulphate in India will be only from the organized farmers and green house projects. Unless the chemical insecticides, which leave residues on the food crop, are totally banned, the market for nicotine sulphate may not improve in India.
Status of Tobacco Waste Based Industries in India
Tobacco Waste based industries in India started with the manufacture of Nicotine and 40% aqueous solution of Nicotine sulphate, based on the technology developed by NCL, Pune, NRDC, New Delhi Government of India undertakings, is the agency that is licensing the processes developed byNCL, Pune for the commercial exploitation of the process of extraction of Nicotine Sulphate from tobacco waste.
The NCL process consists of following steps: Drying of tobacco Waste – Grinding to the desired size – Preparation of lime – Mixing of lime and tobacco waste – Liquid – liquid extraction – Fixation of nicotine as a sulphate – Separation of nicotine Sulphate & kerosene – Packing of Nicotine sulphate in drums. The minimum economic capacity suggested is to process 2- TPD of Tobacco Waste containing not less than 2% nicotine and average yield of 45.13 kg’s of 40% nicotine Sulphate for every tone of tobacco dust processed is expected in NCL Process.
Since tobacco waste is a major cost component with 51.5% share in sale price any increase in nicotine content or reduction in price of tobacco waste will improve the economics of the project. It should be noted that the tobacco waste from Beedi tobacco contains around 7% nicotine and Beedi tobacco is the major tobacco variety grown in India. NCL process was licensed to about 13 parties and only about 5 units are now working.
During 1994-95 a new unit Shri Nicosect Limited was set up in Gujarat for the production of 420 tones of nicotine Sulphate and 120 tones of nicotine alkaloids per annum.
A number of units put up for nicotine Sulphate in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka have faced problems due to inadequate design in scaling up the plant from the pilot plant trials, and non-availability of tobacco dust containing higher nicotine content. 2 Units, one in Gujarat and the other in Karnataka re put up for sale this year by the financial Institutions.
There is a need for a more efficient technology for the extraction of Nicotine from Tobacco/tobacco waste. There is no demand for Nicotine or any other alternate products of Tobacco at present in the country. Efforts should be made to introduce nicotine based smoking cessation products in the country with indigenous Nicotine as the base. Entire production is meant for export. The Indian Nicotine sulphate fetched a price of almost Rs.225 per kg during 1993 and 1994, when exports were the highest for the decade. United State was earlier importing Nicotine based products from India. The Indian Product suffered because of Kerosene smell in case of Nicotine Sulphate. The average US import price of Nicotine and its Salts was $130 per kg during 1997. A Chinese Supplier offers Nicotine 98% pure at $95 a kilo.
Overview of Technologies for Nicotine based Products
The National Chemical Laboratory Pune first developed the technology for the production of Nicotine sulphate in India during early 70’s. According to industry sources the technology is inadequate for the manufacture of Nicotine and Nicotine Sulphate and requires further improvements and modifications.
Technology developed by Central Tobacco Research Institute: The commercial Nicotine was available in the Market as early as 1910. In addition demand for tobacco control, recent introduction of Nicotine based smoking cessation products in the global market, current research findings on the use of nicotine derivatives in the treatment of brain related disorders, has renewed interest in Nicotine derivatives. If the tobacco and tobacco waste containing high nicotine content is to be used as raw materials in the future the process also need to be improved to take advantage of the high nicotine content in raw material.
The process suggested for Nicotine recovery is usually distillation and or organic solvent extraction. Strongly acidic cation exchange resin could be used for recovery of nicotine from aqueous extract.
RCOOH is found to selectively capture Nicotine, which was then eluted as a concentrated solution by ammonia solution as ammonia is a stronger base than Nicotine (pkb of ammonia: 4.74 and pkb of Nicotine:6.15). In the process over 95% recovery of Nicotine is achieved.
Based on the above Principle CTRI developed an improved process for the manufacture of Nicotine Sulphate during 1992-93. The new process allows the use of residual tobacco for the manufacture of other chemicals like Solanesol. The CTRI process for the manufacture of Nicotine Sulphate consist of following steps: Extraction of Nicotine from tobacco / tobacco waste with water – Separation of extract and the residual tobacco – Capturing nicotine in a suitable resin packed in a column – Elution of captured Nicotine with Ammoniacal Alcohol – Separation of Nicotine by distillation and recovery of alcohol – Treatment of Nicotine with sulphate acid of suitable strength to obtain 40% Nicotine Sulphate. Residual tobacco Utilization for recovery of Solanesol. Raw materials used by CTRI consisted of Beedi tobacco wastes, Cigarette factory wastes, Natu tobacco wastes, Cheroot mid ribs and FCV tobacco sample with different Nicotine levels collected during 1986-88. The batch size was 1-2 Kg of Tobacco Waste.
Technology from China: The Chinese have developed a process for the industrial production of Nicotine Sulphate by ion exchange method. The Chinese technical know how is available as part of turnkey supply of plant and machinery at a cost of $600,000 for a 50 TPA plant. During 1994-95 M/s Shri Nicosect Limited established a unit for the manufacture of Nicotine and Nicotine alkaloids with technology from a Hongkong based firm, M/s Mehool International Limited. Technology for the production of Smoking cessation Nicotine products, viz.: Nicotine gum, Nicotine patch, Nasal spray, Mouth piece/Inhaler may be obtained from the respective manufactures. Nicotine can be used to produce nicotinic acid, Niacinamide and pure nicotine reagent. Nicotinic acid is one of the alkaloid present in Tobacco.
Patents on Nicotine and its Derivatives / Products: Several Patents have been taken for the process of manufacture of Nicotine, nicotine sulphate, Nicotine Derivatives, Products and applications of Nicotine. Some of the important patents are:
Patent on "Process and apparatus for semi continuous extraction of Nicotine from tobacco" (EP 0323699) relates to extraction procedures and its particularly directed to a process for the semi continuous extraction of materials from plant products. The process is useful for selective extraction of particular substances from many varieties of plant products, which include Caffeine and other xanthenes derivatives from Coffee beans and cacao and tea plant materials and products, apart from Nicotine from tobacco. The Nicotine rich solvent from the extraction battery is passed through entrapment vessels, connected in series, to remove Nicotine. The solvent depleted in Nicotine is then recycled to the extraction vessels.
The patent on Deproteinized tobacco free from Nicotine and Green Pigment (US 4289147) relates to a process for removing protein, Nicotine and Green pigment material from tobacco. The process gives a tobacco product suitable for use in cigarettes and other tobacco products, which has a reduced protein, Nicotine and tar content but which retains desirable flavour constituents. The process makes available a tobacco suitable for cigarettes and other products, which is less labour intensive than the conventional curing process.
A number of patents are available on therapeutic use of Nicotine derivatives, nicotine Transdermal patch designs, Nicotine gums and lozenges, Packing for Nicotine derivatives etc.
Need for Development of Alternate use for Tobacco:
[Commercially Important Applications]:
Tobacco is dangerous to human health: The social cost of tobacco-related diseases in India is estimated to be around Rs.27,700 crore. The Government is, therefore, left with very little option to discourage consumption of tobacco. India has also urged WHO to frame a common global law on restricting tobacco consumption and to advise WTO to restrict trade in tobacco.
A look at the organs of the body harmed by tobacco smoke
According to the World Health Organization, there were hardly any deaths attributable to tobacco in the South before 1950. Today tobacco kills a million people every year in the Third World. The health consequences of tobacco: In India, a third of the 650,000 yearly deaths from cancer are linked to tobacco.
Women in certain countries like Burkina Faso, socially reject manufactured tobacco, which together with traditional tobacco (which is often chewed) is still seen predominantly as a male vice. Smoking creates special health problems for women.
Tobacco and Revenue from Tobacco: Four of the five major world manufacturers of tobacco are developing countries. China, Brazil, India and Turkey are – together with the USA – the tobacco kings. USA exports 30% of its tobacco.
Argentina, Thailand, Malawi and Zimbabwe also export tobacco. In 1993, Bangadesh earned 10 million dollars from tobacco exports. However, the majority of developing countries are importers of tobacco and not exporters. Tobacco manufacturers say that tobacco production is one of the few financial lungs that help the Third World cope with their deteriorating finances. Tobacco is a major employment provider in the third world. 43 developing countries get foreign currency in exchange for exporting tobacco.
Tobacco is Expensive: Normally, the Tobacco cultivators in the Third World receive very little profit from their product: the large companies to whom they sell the dry tobacco fix the price. Tobacco cultivation erodes and depletes the soil.
According to the tobacco companies’ own statistics, 1200 kilos of wood is needed to cure green leaves so as to get 225 kg of cured leaves or 5.33 kg of wood fuel is required to get 1 kg of cured leaves – a fact that could seriously influence deforestation in some countries. Most tobacco consuming countries have a law, which force tobacco advertisements to include a warning on the risks of smoking. It is forbidden to sell tobacco to anybody under 18. Increased tax on tobacco is helping some countries to reduce tobacco consumption.
The trends of tobacco use in developed countries are different from those in developing countries; developed nations are witnessing a steady decline in tobacco consumption. Developing countries, on the other, are experiencing rising tobacco consumption and shrinking export markets.
Excess Tobacco Production: Even though, the tobacco board in India fixes area under tobacco cultivation for at least VFC tobacco each year in the country it is violated many a times as a result the country ends up with huge unsold stocks every year.
Commercially Important Applications – Smoking Cessation Products: The most important among the alternate applications for tobacco at present is for the manufacture of Nicotine for use in the preparation of Smoking cessation products. Some of the NRT products available in the global market are: Nicotine gum : Most tobacco quitting attempts fail because the body and the brain crave for nicotine. Smoking cessation gum is a highly effective form of Nicotine replacement Therapy (NRT). Smoking gives steady supply of nicotine and quitting shuts if off. The nicotine gum works as a temporary aid to help the quitter by reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Any interested tobacco user can use the nicotine gum, but it can best benefit: heavy smokers (more than 10 cigarettes per day) or spit tobacco users who experience withdrawal symptoms when they quit. Nicotine gum contains an ordinary chewing gum base, but also contains nicotine bound to an inert resin. Nicotine Patch: Nicotine patches are known generically as the nicotine Transdermal system. The nicotine is released through the skin for over 16 hours. The nicotine inhaler is made up of a mouthpiece and a replaceable nicotine cartridge. Nicotine Nasal Spray: Nicotine Nasal Spray is approved in USA for sale through prescription only. Nicotine Micro tablet: The Micro Tablet containing nicotine dissolves under the tongue and gets absorbed into the body. Nicotine Water: The goal of Nicotine Water is to give cigarette users an alternative source of Nicotine that is free of the severe health risks of tar and smoke according to the manufacturer. Nicotine water tastes just like water. Nicotine Water is categorized as a dietary supplement rather than a drug in that it was conceived as a healthier alternative to cigarettes and other tobacco products and not as a treatment or cure for the use of tobacco. Each bottle of Nicotine Water contains the nicotine equivalent of 2 cigarettes and regular bottled water.
Nicotine, the best-known example of a botanical insecticide, is extracted from tobacco plants. Nicotine is generally used in the form of Nicotine sulphate, and some times as Nicotine or Tobacco powder. Nicotine Sulphate biodegrades rapidly and has no residual effect. Only problem with Nicotine or Nicotine Sulphate although natural is their high mammalian toxicity. The countries, which stopped use of Nicotine Sulphate, have now put them in restricted list. Thus, there is going to be increased market potential for Nicotine, Nicotine Sulphate and Tobacco dust based pesticide formulations in the future.
Pharmaceutical use of Nicotine:
Nicotine salts / derivatives generally used in Pharmaceutical application are Nicotine Sulphate, Nicotine Salcylate [MP: 117-1180c], Nicotine hydrochloride, Nicotine Tartrate, Nicotinic acid 98% [Niacin: MP 236-2390C – MW: 123.11], b-Nicotyrine 95% [3-(1)-Methyl pyrnol-2-gl-pyridine]. Nicotine used is generally with purity of 99% and above [MW: 162.23].
Nicotine based drugs is proposed as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease because patients with this disease have fewer nicotinic cholinergic bindings sites than control subjects, and nicotine is known to stimulate acetylcholine receptors. The results of a small pilot study conducted by Wilson AL and others using Nicotine patches suggest that Nicotine can improve cognition in some patients with Alzheimer’s disease. [Nicotine enhances brain cell release of the neurotransmitter acetycholine.
Although, the neuropharmacological interest in nicotine and Parkinson disease is very new, nicotine was first tried clinically about 75 years ago. Injections of nicotine to 13 post encephalitic Parkinson Patients 3 times /day over two weeks, helped patients to some extent. Ulcerative colitis is predominantly a disease of nonsmokers. A controlled trial of 15 to 25 mg of Transdermal nicotine for active ulcerative colitis reported that 49% of patients responded to nicotine, whereas only 24% responded to placebo. A subsequent trial of 15 mg of Transdermal nicotine used to maintain remission of ulcerative colitis reported that 45% of patients receiving nicotine had remission compared to 50% of patients receiving placebo.
Tobacco Giants like RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company themselves are in the process of searching for alternate use for tobacco and in the process have taken up medicinal use as one of the potential area for the future.
Policy Support Required :
The worldwide epidemic of tobacco-related disease and death continues to worsen as tobacco use spreads. Millions of lives could be saved with effective treatment for tobacco dependence. However, such treatment is currently unavailable for many tobacco users throughout the developing and under developed countries. The World Health Organization, on World No-tobacco Day on 1999 (may 31), issued a statement, which gives following information and recommendations to governments, organizations, health-care professionals, and tobacco users and nonusers worldwide.
About Tobacco and Treatment : Tobacco use is widespread. Although overall tobacco use is decreased in many developed countries, it increased in most developing countries. Tobacco use is a pediatric epidemic, as well. Most tobacco use starts during childhood and adolescence.
Tobacco kills. A long-term tobacco user has a 50% chance of dying prematurely from tobacco –caused disease. Tobacco products are highly addictive. Because tobacco products are carefully designed to undermine efforts to quit using them, quitting is not simply a matter of choice for the majority of tobacco users. Many factors combine with tobacco’s addictive capacity to make quitting difficult, including media depictions and cultural and societal acceptance of tobacco use.
No amount of tobacco use is safe. Abstinence from tobacco products and freedom from exposure to second hand smoke are necessary for maximizing health and minimizing risk. Effective treatment for tobacco dependence can significantly improve overall public health within only a few years.
Hundreds of controlled scientific studies have demonstrated that treatment can help tobacco users achieve permanent abstinence. Effective treatment can involve a variety of methods, such as a combination of behavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy (nicotine replacement and non-nicotine medications). Population-based methods such as telephone help-lines and national and international tobacco-free days also can help deliver treatment.
Make Treatment Available. Health-care systems should offer practical interventions to al tobacco users, regardless of economic level, age, and sex. This reducing family exposure to tobacco, and providing treatment medications when appropriate. Assess Tobacco Use and Offer Treatment. Health-care providers should assess and document tobacco use and should provide treatment as an essential part of quality total healthcare providers should assume responsibility for leaning about tobacco use and treatment, and for providing proven interventions. Healthcare professionals should set an example for their peers and patients by quitting tobacco use. Fund Effective Treatment. Motivate Tobacco Users. Governments, health providers, and community groups share a responsibility for motivating tobacco users to quit and remain abstinent. They should educate the public about the health risks of tobacco use, encourage tobacco users to seek treatment, and help make treatment available, affordable and accessible.
Monitor and Regulate Tobacco. Governments should monitor and report on tobacco use, and should tax and regulate the sale and marketing of tobacco products. These efforts reduce initiation of tobacco use and help fund effective treatments. Responsible regulation of tobacco use and limits risk. Additionally, all possible steps should be taken to reduce the harmfulness of tobacco products. Governments should collaborate to provide meaningful and accurate ratings of nicotine and other chemicals in tobacco products, and to reduce the toxicity and addictiveness of those products. Treatment medications should be at least as accessible as tobacco products.
Universal application of all of these measures is the most effective approach to tobacco treatment. The current escalation in tobacco use and in tobacco-related death and disease can only be reversed by investment in comprehensive tobacco control, which includes treatment for tobacco dependence. Governments, healthcare systems, education systems, community and religious groups, and news and entertainment media should collaborate in promoting tobacco treatment.
Short Term Policy Measures: Government should immediately come out with a policy to help tobacco users in all forms to quit the habit. The tobacco manufacturers should be encouraged to diversify in to alternate tobacco products. Research and Development efforts should be intensified towards developing commercially successful alternate tobacco products.
The Central Insecticide Board, Faridabad, should initiate the action to remove the ban imposed on Nicotine Sulfate 40%, for use as a pesticide within the country, so that the industries that could hopefully develop for the manufacture of 40%nicotine sulfate, could have a home base along with exports.
Long Term Policy Measures: Tobacco should be viewed as a Food and oilseed crop of the future. There are a number of small tobacco firms engaged in habit forming tobacco product manufacture and trade. These firms currently engage millions of people in habit-forming tobacco product related activity. Government should initiate action to solve the unemployment problem that would crop up when tobacco control laws are implemented.
Technology has been the main problem among the existing Tobacco based alternate product industries. The products currently manufactured and exported from India is fetching an average price of Rs.150 to 250 a Kilogram (for Nicotine sulphate 40%) as against the Average US import price of $130 per Kg for Nicotine and Nicotine Salts, during 1996. It would be impossible to make a realistic estimate of the potentials that exist for Alternate tobacco products including nicotine and Nicotine derivatives mainly because the proven applications like insecticide use of nicotine and Nicotine Sulphate are still in the state of commercialization or under further development for safer use and Medicinal and Smoking cessation product are still under investigation even though they are manufactured in commercial scale and in use in many countries. Entire quantity of Nicotine and Nicotine Sulphate, and Tobacco alkaloids manufactured in the country at present are meant for exports. Government should encourage technology based ventures and proposals for Industry institution interaction projects to help the industry to exploit the available technology from CTRI and improve the quality of the products manufactured.
Research on medicinal use of Nicotine should be encouraged. Collaborative research between medical research institutes, CTRI and drug research institutes for developing indigenous therapeutic products should be allowed to go waste. Action needs to be initiated to grow tobacco for protein and oilseed purpose and also for Nicotine and other Phytochemicals use based on the current research results.
Commercial Aspects of Nicotine Sulphate & Nicotine Derivatives
The Indian Nicotine manufacturers are not in a position to insist on any definite specification for raw material except the source (Beedi tobacco waste, natu wase etc.). The tobacco waste is not collected in an organized manner at present. Most small Beedi manufacturers usually purchase ready to use blended tobacco from tobacco traders and do not have any processing activity in their units. During the current year Tobacco price touched an all time low of Rs.6 /kg in Karnataka auctions for some low quality FCV tobacco. The peak season tobacco price was Rs.65 /kg for FCV and Rs.45 for other tobacco. Cigarette and Beedi manufacturers have found a way to reduce their raw material costs by blending the tobacco with all kinds of tobacco waste and reconstituting tobacco in the form of tobacco sheet. Thus depriving the Alternate tobacco product manufacturers the raw material required by them to some extent.
The possibility of having genetically engineered tobacco with higher Nicotine content should be an encouraging factor for Nicotine manufacturer. If the present efforts on technology development are continued with greater interest then the tobacco will open up lot of possibilities and make the alternate product manufacturing projects based on tobacco a commercially profitable venture.
The quality of raw materials procured by the nicotine sulphate manufacturers at present is poor and contain on an average 2% nicotine. The Nicotine yield is only around 45 – 50%. At present the raw material (Tobacco Waste) containing higher percentage of Nicotine is usually utilized by the cigarette manufacturers for the production of Tobacco Sheet (Reconstituted Tobacco) and as such the Nicotine producing units have to compete with the cigarette manufacturers, who will be able to offer higher price for the Waste material. The implementation of Tobacco control measures and higher production of Tobacco is expected to ease the situation in the future and more raw material containing higher percentage of nicotine will be available in future to the Nicotine and other alternate tobacco product manufacturers in the future.
Market Prices of Nicotine and its Salts:
Current price of Nicotine (98% purity) offered by a Chinese supplier is $95 per kg, FOB Shanghai. Average price of Nicotine and its derivatives (all forms) is more than $130 per Kg as against Rs.150-250 realized by India for its products at present.
Value added products from Nicotine like Nicotine based safer pesticide formulations, smoking cessation products; Pharmaceutical products can give better returns to the industries and farmers.
Conclusions and Recommendations:
According to that global health report estimates 65% of all men use some form of tobacco (35% smoking, 22% smokeless tobacco, 8% use both). The use of smokeless tobacco is similar among women and men. At least 1/3 of women use one form of tobacco.
Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Karnataka together have 82.4% of the countries tobacco growing areas. The world average yield of tobacco is about 1600 kg/ha. Beedi tobacco is the major tobacco grown in the country (33%0; other tobaccos grown are VFC (23%), Natu (12%), Cigar and Cheroot (3%), Hookah tobacco (14%), Chewing tobacco (13%) and Snuff tobacco (2%).
There are 23 major tobacco growing Districts in the country. Natu tobacco is grown in 5 AP Districts. Hookah tobacco is grown in Bihar, WB, Gujarat and UP. Chewing tobacco is grown in TN, WEB, UP and Orissa.
There has been excess production than the quota fixed by Tobacco Board for VFC tobacco during the year, which resulted in slump in prices.
India is the third largest consumer of tobacco next to China (Ranks No.1) and USA.
The share of Beedi Tobacco production in India has increased from 33% in 1996 to 34% in 199, where as the share of VFC tobacco has come down from 23% to 19% in 1999. The post harvest practices adopted in India is not mechanized at present except for VFC tobacco. AP and Gujarat together contribute 87% of the tobacco waste generated at present. India has been exporting tobacco waste, mainly to USA and Japan. Tobacco is a rich source of Protein, Edible oil and various useful chemicals like Aromatic compounds, Solanesol, Nicotine, Organic acids etc.
Beedi tobacco has the highest percentage of Nicotine (6.5 – 8.2%) followed by Chewing and hookah tobacco (1.0 – 8.25%), Burley tobacco (1.3 – 6.5%), VFC tobacco (0.9 – 4.65%) and Cigar and cheroot tobacco (0.7 – 5.35%). Nicotine content among the commercial samples was the highest for Rustica Tangle form (6.55%) and lowest for Deshi tobacco stems (0.91%).
Among tobacco wastes available in commercial quantities at present Beedi tobacco dust has the highest percentage of Nicotine content (up to 6.3%) followed by Natu and FCV tobacco wastes (1.5 – 3.2%) and Cigarette factory waste has the lowest nicotine content (0.88 – 1.3%). FCV tobacco is rich in Solanesol (0.9%) when compared with other tobacco types (0.1 – 0.6%).
Lamina is the richest part in the tobacco plant with highest percentage of Nicotine, Organic acids, Solanesol and proteins. The estimated production potential of various alternate Tobacco products utilizing Tobacco waste and Surplus tobacco in India is, Nicotine: 2000-2500 TPA, Organic acids: 4000-4500 TPA and Solanesol: 150 – 200 TPA.
The Excise revenue from tobacco products in India is estimated at Rs.75,000 million a year. The current export earnings from Tobacco and tobacco products are about Rs.1750 million.
According to FAO about 7 lakh people in India die due to tobacco related diseases. According to ICMR average cost of treating tobacco related cancers in India is Rs.3.5 lakh per case.
Among the new unexploited tobacco related products Protein from the green leaves and tobacco seed oil are promising product lines for the future.
Commercially important Nicotine derivatives and products at present are: 1, Nicotine Sulphate, which is used as an insecticide and in pharmaceutical preparations, 2. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate, Nicotine bi-tartrate Nicotine Salicylate, Nicotine hydrochloride, Nicotine dihydrochloride and nicotine, which are used in various smoking cessation products like Gums, Nicotine Inhalers, Nasal Sprays, Nicotine Patches, Nicotine Micro Tabs, Nicotine water etc. 3. Nicotine based tooth Paste and Nicotine water.
There are at least five to six units manufacturing Nicotine and Nicotine salts (mainly Nicotine Sulphate 40% solution for use as pesticide) with total installed capacity exceeding 800 TPA of nicotine products, of which only 40 TPA of Nicotine Sulphate was registered for Restricted Use and the remaining for Exports.
Nicotine based pesticides are effective in controlling Aphids, Hetroptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. The technology for Nicotine and Nicotine Sulphate in India was first developed at National Chemical Laboratory, Pune with active collaboration of Central tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry for field trials. India is currently exporting Nicotine alkaloids, Nicotine Salts and Nicotine Sulphate Mainly to Japan, Europe, Russia, Canada and China. The current Market price of Nicotine and its salts is in the range of $95 - $130 per kg, depending upon the country of origin, Type of Nicotine Salt and quality. The average price realized by India for all Nicotine products (85% Nicotine Sulphate 40%) is around Rs.200 per kg.
Technology developed by CTRI for the manufacture of Nicotine, Nicotine Sulphate, Solanesol and Leaf Protein needs support and encouragement for further development into a commercial Plant.
Some of the important patented process includes: 1. Technology for the preparation of Protein, Nicotine and Green Pigment from Tobacco Plant. 2. Technology for the production of Cotinine from Nicotine. 3. Technology for the production of Lozenge containing Nicotine. 4. Technology for Smoking Cessation products like Nicotine Patch, Nicotine Gum, Nicotine inhaler, Nicotine Nasal spray and Nicotine water.
The need for development of alternate use for tobacco arises because of compulsion generated mainly out of health risks of using tobacco for introducing tobacco control laws. Tobacco is a major revenue-generating commodity in many countries. Tobacco is addictive and if the use of tobacco has to be stopped it is necessary to help tobacco users to get rid of the habit. Nicotine Replacement therapy needs Nicotine produced from Tobacco for the manufacture of smoking cessation products.
Efforts to develop varieties rich in Nicotine, Protein, Oil and other Phytochemicals should continue and suitable atmosphere should be created help commercial exploitation of these varieties.
At present a bulk of the waste is utilized by the Cigarette manufacturers themselves for the manufacture of tobacco sheet (reconstituted tobacco). All identified Nicotine rich waste materials should be utilized for the manufacture of Nicotine.
Product Technologies to be commercialized include: Nicotine extraction by Ion exchange method, Technology for Nicotine Sulphate, Solanesol, Technology for other Nicotine Salt. There is an Urgent need to have NRT products to help Tobacco users quit their habit. Efforts should be made to commercialize the laboratory technology for Protein extraction, Tobacco seed Oil extraction, Tobacco seed Oil extraction, Colour extraction and Tobacco flavour and Coenzyme Q.10.
As a long-term plan country should have its own product base for tobacco control (cessation products) Nicotine and its derivatives are not used at present for the treatment of Brain related disorders Research in such medical fields should be encouraged.