Technologies for Retrofitting existing buildings and structures to make them earthquake resistant

4. Retrofitting of Masonry Buildings
4.1 general 4.2 Principle of seismic safety of load-bearing wall buildings 4.3 Retrofitting of Earthen Buildings 4.4 Retrofitting of Masonry Buildings 4.4.1 retrofitting of Rubble Masonry buildings 4.4.2 Retrofitting of Buildings made of Rectangular Masonry Units 4.4.3 Strengthening of Walls 4.4.4 Control of unsupported Length, Height and Openings 4.4.5 Integral Box Action 4.4.6 Strengthening of Foundations 4.4.7 Strengthening of Arches 4.5 Retrofitting of Roofs and Floors
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5. Retrofitting of RC Buildings
5.1 General 5.2 completion of Load Path 5.3 Removal of Configurational Irregularity 5.3.1 Soft/Weak Storey 5.3.2 Torsional Effects 5.3.3 Mass Irregularity 5.3.4 vertical Element Irregularity 5.4 Strengthening of structure 5.4.1 Addition of New Members 5.4.1.1 Shear walls 5.4.1.2 Braced Frames 5.4.1.3 Buttresses 5.4.1.4 Moment Resisting Frames 5.4.2 Strengthening of Existing Memebers 5.4.2.1 Strengthening of Slabs 5.4.2.2 Strengthening of Beams 5.4.2.3 Strengthening of Columns 5.4.2.4 Strengthening of Columns 5.4.2.5 Strengthening of Joints 5.4.2.6 Strengthening of Foundation 5.5 Enhancing Deformation Capacity 5.5.1 Detailing Enhancement 5.5.2 Avoiding Storey Mechanism of Failure 5.5.3 Reduction in Local Stiffness 5.5.4 Supplemental Supports 5.6 Earthquake demand Reduction 5.6.1 seismic Based-Isolation 5.6.2 supplemental Energy Dissipation
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6. Evaluation and Retrofitting of Earthquake Damaged Buildings
6.1 General 6.2 Post Earthquake Investigations 6.2.1 Visual Inspection 6.2.2 Rigorous Investigation 6.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofitting Measures 6.3.1 Temporary Emergency Measures 6.3.2 Repari and Retrofitting of Damaged Members
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7.Intervention Criteria and Retofit Design
7.1 Introduction 7.2 General Principles of Design of Retorfit 7.2.1 Minimum Seismic Resistance or Demand 7.2.2 Available Seismic Resistance or Capacity 7.2.3 Restoration 7.2.4 Strengthening or Retrofitting 7.2.4.1 Criteria for Restoration or Strengthening>> Basic Principles, The UNIDO/UNDF Procedure 7.3  Retrofit Design for Existing Masonry Buildings 7.3.1 Restroration of Masonry Buildings 7.3.2 retrofitting 7.3.2.1 control of Length Height and Thickness of Walls 7.3.2.2 Provision of Seismic Belts 7.4 Retrofit Design of Existing RC Buildings 7.4.1 Enhancement of Strength and Ductility 7.4.2 Effect of Jacketing on Strength and Ductility of Columns
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