Driving Forces - Impedances : Technology Vision 2020

Article Index

 Driving Force as indicated below:

  •   Land Infrastructure
  •   Labour Education
  •   Capital Liberalisation
  •   Management Competition
  •   External Trade Globalisation
  •   Government Rule of Law

Technology is a universal multiplier which magnifies the effectiveness of each of the above six Driving Forces. This report has largely confined itself to (a) infrastructure,(b) education and(c) technology but discusses financial issues too. Impedances:

The Impedances that have been identified are:

  • Land Congestion
  • Labour Irrelevance
  • Capital Controls
  • Management Apathy
  • External Trade Protection
  • Government Populism

This report debates how congested urban development can be avoided and how the work force may be matched to the needs of the economy. Suggestions are also made how technology capability can be improved. Issues Considered

A. Education:

  • how to improve the quality of rural schools;
  • how to match vocational education to market needs;
  • Vision 2020: Impednces and Driving Forces

how demand for higher education be made self-limiting.
Also, an alternative to reservation policy.

B. Infrastructure:

Two basic questions have been analysed

  • Why is it that where infrastructure can be built cheap, there is no demand, and where there is demand, it cannot be built cheap.
  • How to empower rural areas to attract business as well as cities do and thereby rurbanise villages at a fraction of the cost of urban expansion.
  • How to ensure water supply and sanitation of good quality.

C. Technology:

  • How to induce Indian industry to invest in technology development
  • How to ensure that laboratory ideas become marketable products.
  • How to encourage scientific talent.


A. Education:

  • Reduce number of schools by a factor of ten, and institute larger and well equipped schools rather than have a large number of ill equipped ones.
  •   As a corollary to the above, move students each day to good schools rather than move unwilling teachers to bad schools.
  • As an essential support for the above, organise commuting facilities for small children, particularly in rural areas.
  • Impart universal computer literacy right from the primary stage.
  • Offer vocational education on a sandwich pattern with students attending alternately (a) academic classes in schools, and (b) work training sessions under master crafts-persons in commercial establishments
  • Replace a large comprehensive syllabus by the minimum syllabus that is absolutely essential.
  • As an extension of the above, replace expectation of minimum comprehension by an insistence on complete mastery.
  • Replace secret examinations by a question bank given out months in advance.
  • Ideally, remove all restrictions to joining any course of study by replacing the filtering that now occurs at entry by filtering at the exit.
  • In higher education, let the state support only that number of students which the economy needs and no more.
  • Entitle all employees to, say, 3 years of paid leave for continuing education.