Driving Forces - Impedances : Technology Vision 2020



Market in the Vision: The market will be left free to do what it can do effectively. Only those needs which the market cannot meet will be the responsibility of government agencies. Even then, to the extent possible, competition will be introduced between different state agencies or among state/ local governments.

Economic Vision: The UNDP has argued that a Purchasing Power Parity per capita income in excess of the world average of US $ 5120 has little marginal utility. So, the target for per capita income has been set at this figure. That will require a real per capita income growth rate of 6 per cent per year, and a GDP growth rate of 7-8 per cent year - depending on population growth.

Socio-economic Vision: The following components of infrastructure have been identified as inputs necessary to fulfil Maslow Needs.
  •   Physical Needs - Drinking water, Domestic fuel, Primary schooling
  •   Security Needs - Land for housing, Computer literacy, Vocational education
  •   Social Needs - Connectivity (Roads, Public Transport )
  •   Autonomy Needs - Personal transport, Telecommunications
  •   Ecology Needs - Decongestion, Sanitation
  •   Self-actualisation Needs - Recreational and cultural facilities.
Poverty Line: Poverty line will be set in terms of wealth (or entitlements) rather than by income. Any family which does not meet any of the above household targets will be deemed poor. The target is zero poverty. Because the target is in the form of entitlements, such a goal need not be impractical.
Factors of Development: Economic: Land, labour, capital, management, government, trade. Socio-economic: Maslow Needs

Vision 2020: Impednces and Driving Forces

viii Social: Disparities - forward-backward castes; rich-poor, urban-rural; private sectorpublic sector; male-female; Western states-Eastern states. Minimal Infrastructure Targets The following targets have been suggested for above items of infrastructure.

A list of Minimal Infrastructure Targets Components of Growth in United States: According to Denison, the major components
of growth in United States between 1929 and 1983 were: Technology (advances in knowledge) 64 per cent Item Quantity per person


Drinking and cooking water 5 litres per day Water for bathing, cleaning 50 litres per day Unfiltered water for toilets etc. 50 litres per day Energy for cooking 50 kg oil equivalent per year Electricity 2000 units per year Residential space 20 square metres Access Street 10 square metres Playgrounds and parks 5 square metres


Mean years of schooling 12 years including paid leave of 2 years of continuing education Arterial and distributory roads 5 square metres Vehicle parking space 10 square metres Office, institutional space 5 square metres Manufacturing industry 5 square metres Waste disposal etc 5 square metres Local public transport One hour connectivity to 3-500,000 people Telephones Local call connectivity to a million lines


Summary ix

  • Education 30 per cent
  • Management 19 per cent
  • Growth itself (economies of scale) 20 per cent
  • Capital 10 per cent

Other factors were found to be negative. A particularly interesting case of negative contribution is that of rent which is a major growth factor in India. Driving Forces: The following six resources have been identified as basic. Each one has a matching