Code No: TMS010 Price: 500 Category: Foods & Agriculture: Optimum use of Soil
Moisture reduction technologies for freshly harvested cereals
The primary objective of this report has been to present the following aspects of moisture reduction techniques for freshly harvested cereals and akin products:
- Need for moisture reduction in freshly harvested cereals.
- Techno-economic requirements of actual users.
- Survey of published options.
- Techno-economic performance of pilot plants established and actual user’s reaction on acceptance.
- Probable option, their techno-economic analysis, and actual user’s reaction
- Preferred type of fuels and their availability.
- Evaluation of promising option and its critical analysis.
- Problem areas which require further investigations;
- Action considered necessary for promotion and induction of promising technology.
The report is based on published information presented in journals, paper, monographs and reports on the subject. The draft was discussed with leading experts in the field. The present (final) report incorporates their suggestions.
3. Need for Improved Drying Methods
Traditional methods of drying infields, courtyards and on rods by direct exposure to sunshine, practiced in India from times immemorial, are no more appropriate. These methods were adequate with the traditional methods of production of food grains, when the inputs and yields per hectare were low. With the introduction of higher yielding varieties, use of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation facilities, there has been an extraordinary increase in inputs and yields. The problem of harvesting, threshing and drying has increased, because of increased amounts of crop that have to be handled per unit area. The most importance factor which affects post harvesting losses is rain during or immediately after harvesting. Analysis of published precipitation data during or immediately after harvesting of paddy, wheat, jowar, maize and bajra for states of India reveal the probability of rain during harvesting as:
|Paddy||28.4, 15.2 and 11.7 percent, respectively, for Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh.|
|Wheat||16.7., 9.7 and 7.1 percent, respectively for Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.|
|Jowar||24.7, 13.9, 12.3, 9.7 and 9.7 percent, respectively, for Tamil. Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.|
|Maize||63.2, 59.0, 41.6 and 30.6 percent, respectively, for Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh.|
|Bajra||18.2 and 6.2 percent, respectively, for Andhra Pradehs and Maharashtra.|
Results of analysis of published precipitation data and average crop production in the respective states show that the percentage of food crops which are prone to higher post harvesting losses are:
|Crop||% of Total Country’s Production|
The only option available to minimize this loss is installation of, and/or making available, suitable drying systems at the village or at appropriate levels within easy approachable distance.
Under normal weather conditions, farmers have little incentive to dry their produce. Whenever the crops are damaged due to adverse weather conditions, during of immediately after harvest, the government generally advices the procurement agencies to accept even adversely affected cereals, to mitigate the hardships faced by the farmer.
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